Do adhesion molecules importantly regulate leukocyte kinetics within intraacinar microvessels of the lung?
Keywords: confocal microscope, pulmonary microcirculation, leukocyte, adhesion molecules, ICAM-1, P-selectin, L-selectin
AbstractPrecise assessment of blood cell kinetics in the pulmonary microcirculation is extremely difficult because pulmonary microvascular architecture contains arterioles, venules and capillaries in an exceedingly intricate and densely convoluted fashion. Conventional epiluminescence microscopy may not be suitable for investigation of blood cell kinetics in the pulmonary microcirculation, in which arterioles, venules and capillary networks are not located in the same plane. To overcome these impediments, we recently developed a real-time confocal laser luminescence microscope with a high-speed analysis component having the capacity to yield confocal-images of rapidly moving cells at a rate of 1,000 frameslsec and at sufficiently high magnification. In the current review, we will first introduce the details of our newly developed observation system constructed with a view to estimation of blood cell dynamics in the intraacinar microcirculation of the lung. Applying this novel method to isolated perfused rat lungs, we will secondly address the issue of whether or not leukocyte-endothelium interactions in the pulmonary microcirculation qualitatively differ from those serving in the systemic microcirculation. We will particularly shed light on possible roles of endothelial ICAM-1, endothelial P-selectin and leukocyte L-selectin in distorting leukocyte kinetics in the intraacinar microvessels under a variety of diseased conditions, including prolonged exposure to a hyperoxic environment inducing a significant upregulation of ICAM-1 as well as P-selectin on the pulmonary microvascular endothelium, and stimulation of leukocytes by an IL-8 analog causing downregulation of leukocyte L-selectin but inverse upregulation of CD18-related integrins.