Ad hoc procedure for optimising agreement between observational records

  • Javier Arana Universidad Internacional de La Rioja (UNIR)
  • Daniel Lapresa Universidad de La Rioja
  • María Teresa Anguera Universidad de Barcelona
  • Belén Garzón Universidad de La Rioja
Keywords: Observational methodology, reliability, agreement, Cohen’s kappa, consultative procedure.


Observational studies in the field of sport are complicated by the added difficulty of having to analyse multiple, complex events or behaviours that may last just a fraction of a second. In this study, we analyse three aspects related to the reliability of data collected in such a study. The first aim was to analyse and compare the reliability of data sets assessed quantitatively (calculation of kappa statistic) and qualitatively (consensus agreement method). The second aim was to describe how, by ensuring the alignment of events, we calculated the kappa statistic for the order parameter using SDIS-GSEQ software (version 5.1) for data sets containing different numbers of sequences. The third objective was to describe a new consultative procedure designed to remove the confusion generated by discordant data sets and improve the reliability of the data. The procedure is called “consultative” because it involves the participation of a new observer who is responsible for consulting the existing observations and deciding on the definitive result.

Author Biographies

Javier Arana, Universidad Internacional de La Rioja (UNIR)
Departamento de Educación
Daniel Lapresa, Universidad de La Rioja

Departamento Ciencias de la Educación

María Teresa Anguera, Universidad de Barcelona
Metodología de las Ciencias del Comportamiento


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How to Cite
Arana, J., Lapresa, D., Anguera, M., & Garzón, B. (2016). Ad hoc procedure for optimising agreement between observational records. Anales De Psicología / Annals of Psychology, 32(2), 589-595.