Psychosocial maladjustment in adolescence: Parental socialization, self-esteem, and substance use

  • Maria Riquelme University of Valencia
  • Oscar F Garcia University of Valencia
  • Emilia Serra University of Valencia
Keywords: parenting styles, early and late adolescence, psychosocial maladjustment, self-esteem, drugs


This study analyzes adolescents’ vulnerability based on self-esteem and substance use, with parenting style as a protective or risk factor. The sample was composed of 1445 Spanish adolescents (59.4% females), 600 early (41.5%, from 12 to 15 years old) and 845 late (58.5%, from 16 to 17 years old) adolescents. Families were classified in one of four typologies: Indulgent, authoritative, authoritarian, and neglectful. Adolescents’ adjustment was captured through self-esteem (emotional, family, and physical) and substance use (alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and synthetic drugs). Results showed that vulnerability was greater in late adolescence than in early adolescence. An interaction was found between the adolescent stage and gender. Male late adolescents had higher substance use of cannabis and synthetic drugs. The lowest emotional self-esteem corresponded to female late adolescents, and the lowest family self-esteem corresponded to male late adolescents. The parenting style did not interact with the stage of adolescence or gender. The indulgent parenting style was associated with equal or even greater protection than the authoritative parenting style against psychosocial maladjustment problems in adolescence, whereas the authoritarian and neglectful parenting styles acted as risk factors.


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How to Cite
Riquelme, M., Garcia, O., & Serra, E. (2018). Psychosocial maladjustment in adolescence: Parental socialization, self-esteem, and substance use. Anales De Psicología / Annals of Psychology, 34(3), 536-544.
Social and Organizational Psychology