Cognitive Switching Affects Arithmetic Strategy Selection: Evidence from Eye-gaze and Behavioral Measures

  • Xiangyan Wang Shandong Normal University
  • Leilei Zhong Yun Cheng No.1 Middle School
  • Jiwei Si Shandong Normal University
  • Weixing Yang Shandong Normal University
  • Yalin Yang Shandong Normal University
Keywords: Switching function, Cognitive switching, Strategy selection, Presentation mode, Eye movements

Abstract

Although many studies of cognitive switching have been conducted, little is known about whether and how cognitive switching affects individuals’ use of arithmetic strategies. We used estimation and numerical comparison tasks within the operand recognition paradigm and the choice/no-choice paradigm to explore the effects of cognitive switching on the process of arithmetic strategy selection. Results showed that individuals’ performance in the baseline task was superior to that in the switching task. Presentation mode and cognitive switching clearly influenced eye-gaze patterns during strategy selection, with longer fixation duration in the number presentation mode than in the clock presentation mode. Furthermore, the number of fixation was greater in the switching task than it was in the the baseline task. These results indicate that the effects of cognitive switching on arithmetic strategy selection are clearly constrained by the manner in which numbers are presented. 

References

Ansari, D. (2008). Effects of development and enculturation on number representation. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 9(4), 278-291.

Bachtfold, D., Baumuller, M. & Brugger, P. (1998). Stimulus response compatibility in representational space. Neuropsychologia, 36(8), 731-735.

Bull. R. (2001). Executive functioning as a predictor of children’s mathematics ability: Inhibition, switching, and working memory. Developmental Neuropsychology, 19(3), 273-293.

Burny, E. (2012). Time-related competencies in primary education. Doctoral Dissertation. Ghent University: Ghent.

Burny, E., Valcke, M., & Desoete, A. (2012). Clock reading: An underestimated topic in children with mathematical difficulties. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 45(4), 361-360.

Case, R., Okamoto, Y., Henderson, B., McKeough, A., & Bleiker, C. (1996). Exploring the macrostructure of children’s central conceptual structures in the domains of number and narrative. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 61(1-2), 59-82.

Chen, L. L., Liu, M., & Cao, J. M. (2009). Review and prospects of children’s estimate strategies (In Chinese). Journal of Mathematics Education, 18(3), 83-86.

Chen, Y. H., & Wang, M. Y. (2009). Relationship between executive function and arithmetic cognitive strategies in children (In Chinese). Journal of Psychological Science, 32(1), 34-37.

Dehaene, S. (1997). The number sense: How the mind creates mathematics. New York: Oxford University Press.

Diamond, A. (2013). Executive functions. Annual Review of Psychology, 64, 135-168.

Dowker, A. (2001). Numeracy recovery: A pilot scheme for early intervention with young children with numeracy difficulties. Support for Learning, 16 (1), 6-10.

French, J. W., Ekstrom, R. B., & Price, I. A. (1963). Kit of reference tests for cognitive factors. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.

Imbo, I., & Vandierendonck, A. (2007). The development of strategy use in elementary school children: Working memory and individual differences. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 96 (4), 284-309.

Lemaire, P., & Lecacheur, M. (2001). Older and younger adults’ strategy use and execution in currency conversion tasks: Insights from French to Euro and Euro to French Franc conversions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 7(3), 195-206.

Lemaire, P., & Lecacheur, M. (2002). Children’s strategies in computational estimation. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 82(4), 281-304.

Lemaire, P., & Reder, L. (1999). What affects strategy selection in arithmetic? An example of parity and five effects on product verification. Memory & Cognition, 27 (2), 364-382.

Mao, C. X. (2012). The effect of cognitive load on task switching (Unpublished master’s thesis). Zhejiang Normal University, Hangzhou.

Metcalfe, A. W. S., & Campbell, J. I. D. (2010). Switch costs and the operand recognition paradigm. Psychological Research, 74 (5), 491-498.

Moeller, K., Pixner S., Kaufmann L., & Nuerk H. C. (2009). Children’s early mental number line: Logarithmic or decomposed linear? Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 103(4), 503-515.

Rittle-Johnson, B., & Siegler, R. S. (1999). Learning to spell: Variability, choice, and change in children’s strategy use. Child Development, 70(2), 332-348.

Siegler, R. S., & Shrager, J. (1984). Strategy choices in addition and subtraction: How do children know what to do? In C. Sophian (Ed.), Origins of cognitive skills (pp.229-293). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Siegler, R. S., & Shipley, C. (1995). Variation, selection, and cognitive change. In G. Halford & T. Simon (Eds.), Developing cognitive competence: New approaches to process modeling (pp. 31-76). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Thevenot, C., Barrouillet, P., & Fayol, M. (2001). Algorithmic solution of arithmetic problems and operands-answer associations in LTM. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 54A (2), 599-611.

Thevenot, C., Castel, C., Danjon, J., & Fayol, M. (2014). Identifying strategies in arithmetic with the operand recognition paradigm: A matter of switch cost? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 41(2), 541-552.

Thevenot, C., Castel, C., Fanget, M., & Fayol, M. (2010). Mental subtraction in high- and lower skilled arithmetic problem solvers: Verbal report versus operand-recognition paradigms. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 36(5), 1242-1255.

Thevenot, C., Fanget, M.F., & Fayol, M. (2007). Retrieval or nonretrieval strategies in mental arithmetic? An operand recognition paradigm. Memory & Cognition, 35(6), 1344-1352.

Torbeyns, J., Verschaffel, L., & Ghesquiere, P. (2005). Simple addition strategies in a first-grade class with multiple strategy instruction. Cognition and Instruction, 23(1), 1-21.

Wang, Y. X. (2011). Relationship among central executive component, cognitive style and adult arithmetic strategy use: Evidence from estimates (Unpublished master’s thesis). Shandong Normal University, Ji Nan.

Wu, Y. W., & You, X. Q. (2007). Parallel processing mechanism of mental rotation in dual task situations. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 39(5), 785-794.

Zhao, X. C., Zuo, H. F., & Ren, Y. J. (2006). Review of eye tracker and gaze tracking technology. Computer Engineering and Applications, 12(1), 118-120.

Published
01-08-2018
How to Cite
Wang, X., Zhong, L., Si, J., Yang, W., & Yang, Y. (2018). Cognitive Switching Affects Arithmetic Strategy Selection: Evidence from Eye-gaze and Behavioral Measures. Anales De Psicología / Annals of Psychology, 34(3), 571-579. https://doi.org/10.6018/analesps.34.3.299141
Section
Basic Psychology