Assessing teacher leadership in physical education: the Spanish version of the transformational teaching questionnaire

Octavio Alvarez, Ines Tomas, Isaac Estevan, Javier Molina-García, Ana Queralt, Isabel Castillo


Drawing from the transformational leadership theory, this study aims to translate and analyse the psychometric properties of a Spanish version of the Transformational Teaching Questionnaire (TTQ).

A cohort sample of 2107 adolescents (997 males and 1110 females) from 82 secondary schools voluntarily participated in the research.

In Study 1 ((n = 1066), the exploratory factor analysis informed a one-factor solution. In Study 2  (n = 1041), the confirmatory factor analysis showed the single-factor and the four-factor models showed satisfactory and adequate goodness of fit indices, respectively. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that the four-factor structure of transformational teaching with a high second-order factor, previously found in Canadian adolescents, was replicated in this study. Internal consistency was high in all subscales and in the total scale. The expected pattern of significant relationships with other variables was supported, and evidence of measurement invariance across gender groups was obtained.

This study provides evidence for the cross-cultural validation of the TTQ, a questionnaire designed to assess students’ perceptions of their teachers’ behaviours from the perspective of transformational leadership theory. These findings suggested that the Spanish version of TTQ would be useful for assessing transformational teaching in Spanish adolescents in physical education classes.


Transformational leadership theory; transformational teaching; physical education; scale adaptation; adolescents.

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