Relationship among sociodemographic and sport variables, exercise dependence, and burnout: a preliminary study in athletes

Cristina Reche, Cristina De Francisco, Alejandro Martínez-Rodríguez, Almudena Ros-Martínez

Abstract


The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of exercise dependence and athlete burnout and their relationship between them and among demographic and sport characteristics in 449 athletes, 320 males and 129 females (Age: M= 19.71, SD= 6.62). All of them replied the Spanish versions of Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised (EDS-R) and reduced version of Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ). The results showed a risk of exercise dependence in 8.7% of the athletes, with statistically significant differences in age (a greater exercise dependence was found in athletes under the age of 18 years old), not in gender, sport dedication and type of sport. Regarding burnout, measured through its three dimensions, the data showed 4% for emotional/physical exhaustion (EFE) and 4.9% for sport devaluation (SD) and reduced sense of accomplishment (RSA). Men and team-sport athletes showed a greater RSA. Men and athletes over the age of 18 also showed more DS. As for sport dedication, participants who spent less time training had higher levels of RSA, whereas those who dedicated more time, had higher levels of EFE. Finally, the relationship between exercise dependence and burnout showed that all dimensions of burnout correlated positively with exercise dependence. 


Keywords


Dependence; burnout; athletes; prevalence; sociodemographic and sport variables

Full Text:

PDF

References


Adams, J. M., Miller, T. W., & Kraus, R. F. (2003). Exercise dependence: diagnostic and therapeutic issues for patients in psychotherapy. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 33(2), 93-107.

Allegre, B., Souville M., Therme P., & Griffiths M. (2006). Definitions and measures of exercise dependence. Addiction Research and Theory, 14, 631-646.

Allegre, B., Therme, P., & Griffiths, M. (2007). Individual factors andthe context of physical activity in exercise dependence: A prospective study of ‘ultra-marathoners’. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 5(3), 233-243.

Arce, C., De Francisco, C., Andrade, E., Seoane, G., & Raedeke, T. D. (2012). Adaptation of the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire in a Spanish Sample of Athletes. Spanish Journal of Psychology, 15, 1529-1536.doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5209/rev_SJOP.2012.v15.n3.39437

Caracuel, E., & Arbinaga, I. (2010). Repercusión del ejercicio físico sobre la salud. Apuntes de Psicología, 28(2), 315-328.

Casagrande, P.O., Andrade, A., Viana, M. S., & Vasconcellos, D. I. C. (2014). Burnout em tenistas brasileiros infanto-juvenis. Motricidade, 10(2), 60-71.doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.6063/motricidade.10(2).2713.

Cervelló, E. (2003). Sobreentrenamiento, burnout y motivación en el deporte. In F. Suay (Ed.), El síndrome de sobreentrenamiento: una visión desde la Psicobiología del Deporte (pp. 39-54). Barcelona: Paidotribo.

Coakley, J. (1992). Burnout among adolescent athletes: A personal failure or social problem. Sociology of sport journal, 9(3), 271-285.

Cremades, J. G., & Wiggins, M. S. (2008). Direction and intensity of trait anxiety as predictors of burnout among collegiate athletes. Athletic Insight: The Online Journal of Sport Psychology, 10(2).

Cresswell, S. L., & Eklund, R. C. (2006). The nature of player burnout in rugby: Key characteristics and attributions. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 18, 219-239.

De Francisco, C. (2015). Versión reducida del Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ): propiedades psicométricas preliminares. [Reduced version of the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ): preliminary psychometric properties]. Revista de Psicología del Deporte, 24,177-183.

De Francisco, C., Garcés de los Fayos, E. J., & Arce, C. (2014). Burnout en deportistas: prevalencia del síndrome a través de dos medidas. [Burnout in athletes: Prevalence of the syndrome through two measures]. Cuadernos de Psicología del Deporte, 14(1), 29-38.

DiFiori, J. P., Benjamin, H. J., Brenner, J. S., Gregory, A., Jayanthi, N., Landry, G. L., & Luke, A. (2014). Overuse injuries and burnout in youth sports: a position statement from the American Medical Society for Sports Medicine. British journal of sports medicine, 48(4), 287-288.

Ekkekakis, P., & Acevedo, E.O. (2006). Affective responses to acute exercise: Toward a psychobiological dose-response model. In E.O. Acevedo & P. Ekkekakis (Eds.), Psychobiology of physical activity (pp. 91-109). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

González-Cutre, D., & Sicilia, A. (2012). Dependencia del ejercicio físico en usuarios españoles de centros de acondicionamiento físico (fitness): diferencias según el sexo, la edad y las actividades practicadas. [Burnout in athletes: Prevalence of the syndrome through two measures]. Behavioral Psychology/Psicología Conductual, 20(2), 349-364.

Goodger, K., Gorely, T., Lavallee, D., & Harwood, C. (2007). Burnout in sport: A systematic review. The Sport Psychologist, 21, 127-151.

Gould, D., Udry, E., Tuffey, S., & Loehr, J. (1996). Burnout in competitive junior tennis players: I. A quantitative psychological assessment. The Sport Psychologist, 10, 322-340.

Gustafsson, H., Kenttä, G., Hassmén, P., & Lundqvist, C. (2007). Prevalence of burnout in competitive adolescent athletes. The Sport Psychologist, 21(1), 21-37.

Guszkowska, M., & Rudnicki, P. (2012). Mood changes in physically active men in situations of imagined discontinuation of physical exercises as an indication of the risk of addiction to physical exercises. Polish Journal of Sport and Tourism, 19(1), 16-20.

Heidari, S. (2013). Gender differences in burnout in individual athletes. European Journal of Experimental Biology, 3(3), 583-588.

Holden, S. L., Keshock, C. M., Forester, B. E., Pugh, S. F., &

Heitman, R. J. (2016). Burnout and Years of Sports Competition: Is There a Correlation? International Journal of Sports Science, 6(1A), 8-11.doi:10.5923/s.sports.201601.02

Jiménez, M. G., Martínez, P., Miró, E., & Sánchez, A. I. (2008). Bienestar psicológico y hábitos saludables: ¿están asociados a la práctica de ejercicio físico? International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 8(1), 185-202.

Jones, C. M., & Tenenbaum, G. (2009). Adjustment Disorder: a new way of conceptualizing the overtraining syndrome. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 2(2), 181-197.

Judge, L. W., Bell, R. J., Theodore, R., Simon, L., & Bellar, D. (2012). An exploratory examination of burnout in NCAA Division II athletes. Journal of Intercollegiate Sport, 5(2), 230-240.

Kellmann, M., & Kallus, K.W. (2001). Recovery-stress questionnaire for athletes: User manual. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Kenttä, G., Hassmén, P., & Raglin, J. S. (2001). Training practices and overtraining syndrome in Swedish age-group athletes. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 22, 460-465.

Kjelsas, E., Augestad, L. B., & Gotestam, K.G. (2003). Exercise dependence in physically activa women. The European Journal of Psychiatry, 17, 145-155.

Klein, D. A., Bennett, A. S., Schebendach, J., Foltin, R. W., Devlin, M. J., & Walsh, B. T. (2004). Exercise “addiction” in anorexia nervosa: Model development and pilot data. CNS Spectrums, 9, 531–537.

Latorre, P. Á., Jiménez, A., Párraga, J., & García, F. (2016). Dependencia al ejercicio físico e insatisfacción corporal en diferentes deportes de resistencia y su relación con la motivación al deporte. Revista de Psicología del Deporte, 25(1), 113-120.

Lindwall, M., & Palmeira, A. (2009). Factorial validity and invariance testing of the Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised in Swedish and Portuguese exercisers. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, 13, 166-179.

Lubans, D. R., Foster, C., & Biddle, S. J. H. (2008). A review of mediators of behavior in interventions to promote physical activity among children and adolescents. Preventive Medicine, 47, 463-470.

Marques, A., Peralta, M., & Catuda, R. (2015). Dependência em exercício físico: uma análise na perspetiva da saúde pública. Boletim SPEF, 39, 89-99.

Márquez, S., & de la Vega, R. (2015). La adicción al ejercicio: un trastorno emergente de la conducta. Nutrición Hospitalaria, 31(6), 2384-2391.

Modolo, V. B., Mello, M. T. D., Giménez, P. R. B. D., Tufik, S., & Antunes, H. K. M. (2009). Dependencia de exercicio fisico: humor, qualidade de vida em atletas amadores e profissionais. Revista

Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte, 15(5), 355-359.

Nafian, S., Karimi, E., Ghasemi, M., & Zahrabi, S. (2014). The effect of gender and sport field type on burnout levels in Iranian athletes. Archives of Applied Science, 6(4), 11-14.

Pedrosa, I., & García-Cueto, E. (2012). Adaptación al español del Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ) en una muestra española de deportistas. [Spanish adaptation of the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ) in a Spanish athlete sample]. Ansiedad y Estrés, 18, 155-166.

Pedrosa, I., & García-Cueto, E. (2014). Estudio del síndrome de burnout en deportistas: prevalencia y relación con el esquema corporal. [A Study of the Burnout Syndrome in Sportspeople: Prevalence and Relationship to the Body Image]. Universitas Psychologica, 13(1), 135-143.

Raedeke, T. D. (1997). Is athlete burnout more than just stress? A sport commitment perspective. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 19(4), 396-417.

Raedeke, T. D., & Smith, A. L. (2001). Development and preliminary validation of an athlete burnout measure. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 23(4), 281-306.

Reche, C., & Gómez, M. (2014). Dependencia al ejercicio físico y trastornos de la conducta alimentaria. [Dependence of physical exercise and eating disorders]. Apuntes de Psicología, 32(1), 25-32.

Reche, C., Martínez-Rodríguez, A., & Ortín, F. J. (2015). Dependencia al ejercicio físico e indicadores del estado de ánimo en deportistas universitarios. [Exercise dependence and mood states indicators in university athletes]. Cuadernos de Psicología del Deporte, 15(2), 21.

Sicilia, A., & González-Cutre, D. (2011). Dependence and physical exercise: Spanish Validation of the Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised (EDS-R). Spanish Journal of Psychology, 14(1), 421-431.

Silva, J. M. (1990). An analysis of the training stress syndrome in competitive athletics. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 2(1), 5-20.

Smith, R. E. (1986). Toward a cognitive-affective model of athletic burnout. Journal of Sport Psychology, 8(1), 36-50.

Weik, M., & Hale, B. D. (2009). Contrasting gender differences on two measures of exercise dependence. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 43(3), 204-207.

Zeulner, B., Ziemainz, H., Beyer, C., Hammon, M., & Janka, R. (2016). Disordered Eating and Exercise Dependence in Endurance Athletes. Advances in Physical Education, 6, 76-87. doi: 10.4236/ape.2016.62009




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6018/analesps.34.2.289861

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2018 Servicio de Publicaciones, Universidad de Murcia (Spain)

Open AccessSello de Calidad FECyT 2013ClarivAnaliticsWJ.jpgScielo-Españadoajscimago