RTC-11: Adaptation of the Resistance to Change Scale in two countries

Maria Boada-Cuerva, Joan Boada-Grau, Aldo Javier Prizmic-Kuzmica, Natalia Gimena de Diego, Andreu Vigil-Colet


Background: Resistance to change is the tendency to resist or avoid making changes; in addition, change is perceived as aversive. Resistance to change is a professional competence that can be evaluated. Objective: To adapt from the original English into Spanish the Resistance to Change Scale (RTC) by Oreg (2003) in two countries, Spain and Argentina. Method: The participants were 482 employed workers from Spain (Study 1) and 171 managers from Argentina (Study 2). Results: The results are presented in two studies and an unifactorial structure is demonstrated after exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) are performed. The factor obtained has adequate reliability and evidence of validity is also confirmed if some external correlates and certain scales dealing with pro/anti-change behaviors, self-efficacy, the hardy personality and impulsivity are taken as references. Conclusions: This scale could be an ideal instrument for correctly identifying RTC and it can be used as a screening tool in combination with other instruments.


Resistance to Change Scale, evaluation, scale, Spanish adaptation, cross-cultural.

Full Text:



Baessler, J., & Schwarcer, R. (1996). Evaluación de la autoeficacia: Adaptación española de la escala de Autoeficacia General. [Evaluation of self-efficacy: Spanish adaptation of the scale of General Self-efficacy.]. Ansiedad y Estrés, 2, 1-8.

Boada-Grau, J., Prizmic-Kuzmica, J., De Diego, N., Boada-Cuerva, M., & Vigil-Colet, A. (2014). An empirical approach to resistence to change. Tarragona: Rovira i Virgili University. Unpublished.

Chico, E., Tous, J.M., Lorenzo-Seva, U., & Vigil-Colet, A. (2003). Spanish adaptation of Dickman’s impulsivity inventory: its relationship to Eysenck’s personality questionnaire. Personality and Individual Differences, 35, 1883-1892. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(03)00037-0

Dent, E. B., & Goldberg, S. G. (1999). Challenging “resistance to change”. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 35, 25-41.

Dickman, S. J. (1990). Functional and dysfunctional impulsivity: personality and cognitive correlates. Journal of Personality and Social Personality, 58, 95-102. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.58.1.95

Fan, X., & Sivo, S.A. (2007). Sensitivity of fit indices to model misspecification and model types. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 42, 509-529.

García-Cabrera, A.M., Álamo-Vera, F.R., & García-Barba, F. (2011). Antecedents of resistance to change: Personality and context factors. Cuadernos de Economía y Dirección de la Empresa, 14, 231-246. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cede.2011.02.007

Giangreco, A., & Peccei, R. (2005). The nature and antecedents of middle manager resistance to change: Evidence from an Italian context. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 16, 1812-1829. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09585190500298404

Hambleton, R.K., Merenda, P.F., & Spielberger, C.D. (2005). Adapting educational and psychological tests for cross-cultural assessment. London: Erlbaum.

Highhouse, S., & Gillespie, J. Z. (2008). Do samples really matter that much? In C.E. Lance & R. J. Vandenberg (Eds.), Statistical and methodological myths and urban legends: Received doctrine, verity, and fable in the organizational and social sciences (pp. 247–266). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Kaiser, H.F. (1970). A second generation little jiffy. Psychometrika, 35, 401-416.

Lévy-Mangin, J.P., & Varela-Mallou, J. (2006). Modelización con estructuras de covarianzas en ciencias sociales. Temas esenciales, avanzados y aportaciones especiales [Modelling covariance structures in the social sciences. Essential and advanced topics and special contributions]. Madrid: Gesbiblo.

Lorenzo-Seva, U., & Ferrando, P.J. (2006). FACTOR: A computer program to fit the exploratory factor analysis model. Behavioral Research Methods, Instruments and Computers, 38, 88-91. http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/BF03192753

Moreno, B., Garrosa, E., & González, J.L. (2000). Personalidad resistente, burnout y salud [Hardiness, burnout and health]. Escritos de Psicología, 4, 64-77.

Naus, F., van Iterson, A., & Roe, R. (2007). Organizational cynicism: Extending the exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect model of employees’ responses to adverse conditions in the workplace. Human Relations, 60, 683-718. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0018726707079198

Nov, O., & Ye, C. (2008). Users’ personality and perceived ease of use of digital libraries: The case for resistance to change. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 59, 845-851. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/asi.20800

Nunnally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric theory. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Oreg, S. (2003). Resistance to change: Developing an individual differences measure. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 680-693.

Oreg, S. (2006). Personality, context, and resistance to organizational change. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 15, 73-101. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13594320500451247

Oreg, S., & Sverdlik, N. (2011). Ambivalence toward imposed change: The conflict between dispositional resistance to change and the orientation toward the change agent. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96, 337-349. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0021100

Oreg, S., Bayazit, M., Vakola, M., Arciniega, L., Armenakis, A., Barkauskiene, R., et al. (2008). Dispositional resistance to change: Measurement equivalence and the link to personal values across 17 nations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93, 935-944. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.93.4.935

Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: a critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 879-903.

Sanjuán, P., Pérez, A.M., & Bermúdez, J. (2000). The general self-efficacy scale: Psychometric data from the Spanish adaptation. Psicothema, 12, 509-513.

Schumacker, R. E., & Lomax, R. G. (1996). A beginner’s guide to structural equation modeling. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Stewart, W.H., May, R. C., McCarthy, D.J., & Puffer, S.M. (2009). A test of the measurement validity of the resistance to change scale in Russia and Ukraine. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 45, 468-489. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0021886309338813

Timmerman, M.E., & Lorenzo-Seva, U. (2011). Dimensionality assessment of ordered polytomous items with parallel analysis. Psychological Methods, 16, 209-220. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0023353

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6018/analesps.34.2.286721


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Servicio de Publicaciones, Universidad de Murcia (Spain)

Open AccessSello de Calidad FECyT 2013ClarivAnaliticsWJ.jpgScielo-Españadoajscimago