Independent and Interdependent? Agentic and Communal? Self-construals of People Fused with a Group

Tomasz Besta

Abstract


Four studies were conducted to examine how self and group identity fusion is related to self-construals, self-perception of agentic and communal traits, and the desire for self- and group verification. In study 1 (N1 = 244), identity fusion in relation to country and gender was examined, while in studies 2 (N2 = 164), and 3 (N3 = 166) participants’ relations with social groups important to and chosen by them were analyzed. Study 4 (N4= 796) included football fans, and they described their relations with other fans. The results showed that high identity fusion was described by (a) high results for interdependent and independent self-construal, except when fusion with country was considered (studies 1, 2, and 4); (b) simultaneously high agency and communion (studies 3 and 4); and (c) a strong desire for self-verification at the group and personal levels of self-description. 


Keywords


self-construals; group processes; self; social identity; identity fusion

Full Text:

PDF

References


Atran, S., Sheikh, H., & Gómez, Á. (2014). Devoted actors sacrifice for close comrades and sacred cause. PNSA, 111(50), 17702–17703. doi:10.1073/pnas.1420474111

Becker, J. C., & Tausch, N. (2015). A dynamic model of engagement in normative and non-normative collective action: Psychological antecedents, consequences, and barriers. European Review of Social Psychology, 26(1), 43–92. doi:10.1080/10463283.2015.1094265

Besta, T. (2014). Overlap between personal and group identity and its relation with radical pro-group attitudes: data from a Central European cultural context. Studia Psychologica, 56, 67-80.

Besta, T., Gómez, Á., & Vázquez, A. (2014). Readiness to deny group’s wrongdoing and willingness to fight for its members: The role of the Poles’ identity fusion with the country and religious group. Current Issues in Personality Psychology, 2(1), 49‒55. doi:10.5114/cipp.2014.43101

Besta, T., Mattingly, B., & Błażek, M. (2016). When membership gives strength to act: Inclusion of the group into the self and feeling of personal agency. The Journal of Social Psychology, 156(1), 56-73. doi:10.1080/00224545.2015.1053838

Besta, T., Szulc, M., & Jaśkiewicz, M. (2015). Political extremism, group membership, and personality traits: Who accepts violence? Revista de Psicología Social: International Journal of Social Psychology, 3, 563–585. doi:10.1080/02134748.2015.1065085

Cross, S. E., Hardin, E. E., & Gercek-Swing, B. (2011). The what, how, why, and where of self-construal. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 15, 142–179. doi:10.1177/1088868310373752

Cuddy, A. J. C., Fiske, S. T., & Glick, P. (2008). Warmth and competence as universal dimensions of social perception: The stereotype content model and the BIAS map. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 40, 61–149.

D’Amico, A., & Scrima, F. (2016). The Italian validation of Singelis’s Self-Construal Scale (SCS): A short 10-item version shows improved psychometric properties. Current Psychology, 35, 159–168. doi:10.1007/s12144-015-9378-y

Gómez, A., Brooks, M. L., Buhrmester, M. D., Vázquez, A., Jetten, J., & Swann, Jr., W. B. (2011a). On the nature of identity fusion: Insights into the construct and a new measure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100(5), 918–933. doi:10.1037/a0022642

Gómez, Á., Morales, J. F., Hart, S., Vázquez, A., & Swann, Jr., W. B. (2011b). Rejected and excluded forevermore, but even more devoted: Irrevocable ostracism intensifies loyalty to the group among identity fused persons. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37(12), 1574–1586. doi:10.1177/0146167211424580

Gómez, Á., & Vázquez, A. (2015). El poder de “sentirse uno” con un grupo: Fusión de la identidad y conductas progrupales extremas [The power of “feeling one” with a group: Identity fusion and extreme progroup behaviors]. Revista de Psicología Social, 30(3), 1–31. doi:10.1080/02134748.2015.1065089

Gore, J. S., & Cross, S. E. (2011). Conflicts of interest: Relational self-construal and decision making in interpersonal contexts. Self and Identity, 10(2), 185–202. doi:10.1080/15298861003684390

Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

Jaśkiewicz, M., & Besta, T. (2014). Is easy access related to better life? Walkability and overlapping of personal and communal identity as predictors of quality of life. Applied Research in Quality of Life, 9(3), 505–516. doi:10.1007/s11482-013-9246-6

Jong, J., Whitehouse, H., Kavanagh, C., & Lane, J. (2015). Shared negative experiences lead to identity fusion via personal reflection. PloS one, 10(12), e0145611. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0145611

Khan, S. S., Hopkins, N., Reicher, S., Tewari, S., Srinivasan, N., & Stevenson, C. (2015). How collective participation impacts social identity: A longitudinal study from India. Political Psychology, 37(3), 309–325. doi:10.1111/pops.12260

Kwiatkowska, A., Anikeenok, O. A., Alishev, B. S., Kulikov, L., Malyonova, A., & Taburova, T. S. (2015). Religijność a zadowolenie z życia Rosjan [Religiosity and quality of life of Russians]. In H. Grzymała-Moszczyńska & D. Motak (Eds.), Religia, religijność, duchowość. W poszukiwaniu nowych perspektyw [Religion, religiosity, spirituality. In search of new perspectives] (pp. 105–121). Kraków, Poland: Wydawnitwo UJ.

Kwiatkowska, A., Roszak, J., Sikora, R., Kuo, B. C. H., Karpinskij, K., Gushchina, T., & Gober, G. (2014). Kultura a strategie radzenia sobie ze stresem. Badania międzykulturowe [Culture, stress and coping strategies. A cross-cultural study]. Psychologia Społeczna, 9, 68–91. doi:10.7366/189618002014280105

Laurin, K., Kay, A. C., & Shepherd, S. (2011). Self-stereotyping as a route to system justification. Social Cognition, 29(2), 360–375. doi:10.1521/soco.2011.29.3.360

Nussinson, R., Häfner, M., Seibt, B., Strack, F., & Trope, Y. (2012). Approach/avoidance orientations affect self-construal and identification with in-group. Self and Identity, 11(2), 255–272. doi:10.1080/15298868.2011.559044

Pilarska, A. (2014). Self-construal as a mediator between identity structure and subjective well-being. Current Psychology, 33(2), 130–154. doi:10.1007/s12144-013-9202-5

Reicher, S., & Haslam, S. A. (2013). Towards a “science of movement”: Identity, authority and influence in the production of social stability and social change. Journal of Social and Political Psychology, 1(1), 112–131. doi:10.5964/jspp.v1i1.266

Seih, Y. T., Buhrmester, M. D., Lin, Y. C., Huan, C. L., & Swann, Jr., W. B. (2013). Do people want to be flattered or understood? The cross-cultural universality of self-verification. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49, 169–172. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2012.09.004

Singelis, T. M. (1994). The measurement of independent and interdependent self-construals. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 20(5), 580–591.

Swann, Jr., W. B., & Buhrmester, M. D. (2015). Identity fusion. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 24(1), 52–57. doi:10.1177/0963721414551363

Swann, W. B., Buhrmester, M. D., Gómez, M., Jettem, J., Bastian, B., Vázquez, A., . . . Zhang, A. (2014). What makes a group worth dying for? Identity fusion fosters perception of familial ties, promoting self-sacrifice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 106(6), 912–926. doi:10.1037/a0036089

Swann, Jr., W. B., Gómez, A., Huici, C., Morales, J. F., & Hixon, J. G. (2010). Identity fusion and self-sacrifice: Arousal as a catalyst of pro-group fighting, dying, and helping behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 99(5), 824–841. doi:10.1037/a0020014

Swann, Jr., W. B., Gómez, A., Seyle, D. C., Morales, J. F., & Huici, C. (2009). Identity fusion: The interplay of personal and social identities in extreme group behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96(5), 995–1011. doi:10.1037/a0013668

Swann, Jr., W. B., Jetten, J., Gómez, Á., Whitehouse, H., & Bastian, B. (2012). When group membership gets personal: A theory of identity fusion. Psychological Review, 119(3), 441–456. doi:10.1037/a0028589

Swann, Jr., W. B., Polzer, J. T., Seyle, D. C., & Ko, S. J. (2004). Finding value in diversity: Verification of personal and social self-views in diverse groups. The Academy of Management Review, 29(1), 9–27.

Swann, Jr., W. B., Stein-Seroussi, A., & Giesler, R. B. (1992). Why people self-verify. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62(3), 392–401. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.62.3.392

Utz, S. (2004). Self-construal and cooperation: Is the interdependent self more cooperative than the independent self? Self and Identity, 3, 177–190. doi:10.1080/13576500444000001

Van Zomeren, M., Postmes, T., & Spears, R. (2008). Toward an integrative social identity model of collective action: A quantitative research synthesis of three socio-psychological perspectives. Psychological Bulletin, 134(4), 504–535.

Wiesenfeld, B. M., Swann, W. B., Brockner, J., & Bartel, C. A. (2007). Is more fairness always preferred? Self-esteem moderates reactions to procedural justice. Academy of Management Journal, 50(5), 1235–1253.

Wojciszke, B., Abele, A. E., & Baryla, W. (2009). Two dimensions of interpersonal attitudes: Liking depends on communion, respect depends on agency. European Journal of Social Psychology, 39(6), 973–990. doi:10.1002/ejsp.595

Wojciszke, B., & Szlendak, M. A. (2010). Skale do pomiaru orientacji sprawczej i wspólnotowej [Scales measuring agency and communion]. Psychologia Społeczna, 5(1), 57–70.

Wright, S. C., Aron, A., & Tropp, L. R. (2002). Including others (and groups) in the self: Self-expansion and intergroup relations. In J. P. Forgas & K. D. Williams (Eds.), The social self: Cognitive, interpersonal and intergroup perspectives (pp. 343–368). New York, NY: Psychology Press.

Zumeta, L., Basabe, N., Wlodarczyk, A., Bobowik, M., & Páez, D. (2016). Shared flow and positive collective gatherings. Anales de Psicología/Annals of Psychology, 32(3), 717–727. doi:10.6018/analesps.32.3.261651




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6018/analesps.34.1.266201

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2018 Servicio de Publicaciones, Universidad de Murcia (Spain)

Open AccessSello de Calidad FECyT 2013ClarivAnaliticsWJ.jpgScielo-Españadoajscimago