Effect of 3x2 achievement goals and classroom goal structures on self-determined motivation: a multilevel analysis in secondary education
AbstractThe study faces two objectives: (a) to examine the construct validity of the 3x2 Classroom Goal Structures Questionnaire, and (b) to jointly analyze the influence of the classroom goal structures and 3x2 achievement goals on high school students’ self-determined motivation. 2284 students participated (51.6% men and 48.4% women) aged 12-17 years (M = 14.31 years, SD = 1.15), from 148 classrooms. The results of confirmatory factor analysis supported the hypothesized model. The validity and internal consistency of the questionnaire were satisfactory. The results of hierarchical linear models provided support to the direct, indirect and interaction models. Regarding direct effects, self-approach structure, and self-approach and task-approach goals were positive predictors of self-determined motivation, whereas the other-approach structure, and other-approach and task-avoidance goals were negative predictors. In relation to indirect effects, the results revealed that the three approach goals, and task-avoidance goals were partial mediators of the relationship between the self-approach structure and self-determined motivation, whereas other-approach goals were partial mediators in the relationship with their parallel structure. Regarding the interaction effects, the relationship between task-approach goals and self-determination varied depending on the other-approach structure.
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