Academic motivation scale revised. Inclusion of integrated regulation to measure motivation in initial teacher education.

Rafael Burgueño, Álvaro Sicilia, Jesús Medina-Casaubon, Manuel Alcaraz-Ibañez, María-Jesús Lirola


The objective of this study was to incorporate the integrated regulation assessment into the Academic Motivation Scale within the Spanish initial teacher education context. There were 496 student participants (233 men and 263 women; Mage = 25.70, SD = 4.23) from the Masters in Teaching for Compulsory Secondary Education, Upper Secondary School Education and Professional Education, and Language Teaching. The confirmatory factor analysis showed acceptable fit-indexes for the eight-factor correlated structure and an invariant factor structure across genders. Internal consistency and temporal stability were satisfactory for each of the eight factors. The linear regression analysis indicated that integrated regulation was the strongest predictor of intention to become a teacher. This new instrument may contribute to a deeper understanding of the motivational processes involved in the initial teacher education context.


motivation; psychometric properties; self-determination theory; initial teacher education.

Full Text:



Ajzen, I., y Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Alivernini, F., y Lucidi, F. (2008). The Academic Motivation Scale (AMS): Factorial structure, invariance and validity in the Italian context. Testing, Psychometrics, Methodology in Applied Psychology, 15(4), 211–220.

Anderson, J. C., y Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103(3), 411–423.

Bandura, A. (1989). Human agency in social cognitive theory. American Psychologist, 44, 1175–1184.

Barkoukis, V., Tsorbatzoudis, H., Grouios, G., y Sideridis, G. (2008). The assessment of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and amotivation: Validity and reliability of the Greek version of the Academic Motivation Scale. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 15(1), 39–55.

Bentler, P. M. (1989). EQS structural equations program manual. Los Angeles, CA: BMDP Statistical Software.

Black, A. E., y Deci, E. L. (2000). The effects of instructors’ autonomy support and students' autonomous motivation on learning organic chemistry: A self-determination theory perspective. Science Education, 84, 740 – 756.

Boiché, J. C. S., Sarrazin, P. G., Grouzet, F. M. E., Pelletier, L. G., y Chanal, J. P. (2008). Students’ motivational profiles and achievement outcomes in physical education: a self-determination perspective. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100(3), 688–701.

Byrne, B. M. (2010). Structural equation modeling with AMOS: Basic concepts, applications, and programming (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.

Caleon, I. S., Wui, M. G. L., Tan, J. P.-L., Chiam, C. L., Soon, T. C., y King, R. B. (2015). Cross-Cultural Validation of the Academic Motivation Scale: A Singapore Investigation. Child Indicators Research, 925–942.

Can, G. (2015). Turkish version of the Academic Motivation Scale. Psychological Reports, 116(2), 388–408.

Chemolli, E., y Gagné, M. (2014). Evidence against the continuum structure underlying motivation measures derived from self-determination theory. Psychological Assessment, 26(2), 575–585.

Chen, F. F. (2007). Sensitivity of goodness of fit indexes to lack of measurement invariance. Structural Equation Modeling, 14(3), 464–504.

Cokley, K. (2015). A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Academic Motivation Scale With Black College Students. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 48(2), 124–139.

Cokley, K., Bernard, N., Cunningham, D., y Motoike, J. (2001). A psychometric investigation of the Academic Motivation Scale using a United States sample. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 34, 109–119.

Deci, E. L., y Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Springer Science & Business Media. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.

Deci, E. L., y Ryan, R. M. (2000). The “what” and “why” of goal pursuits: human needs and the Self-Determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11(4), 227–268.

Eccles, J. S., y Wigfield, A. (2002). Motivational beliefs, values, and goals. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 109–132.

Ferriz, R., González-Cutre, D., y Sicilia, A. (2015). Revisión de la Escala del Locus Percibido de Causalidad (PLOC) para la inclusión de la medida de la regulación integrada en educación física. Revista de Psicologia Del Deporte, 24(2), 329–338.

Fleiss, J. L. (2011). Design and analysis of clinical experiments. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.

Green-Demers, I., Pelletier, L. G., y Ménard, S. (1997). The impact of behavioral difficulty on the saliency of the association between self-determined motivation and environmental behaviors. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 29, 157–166.

Grouzet, F. M. E., Otis, N., y Pelletier, L. G. (2006). Longitudinal cross-gender factorial invariance of the Academic Motivation Scale. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 13(1), 73–98.

Guay, F., Morin, A. J. S., Litalien, D., Valois, P., y Vallerand, R. J. (2015). Application of Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling to Evaluate the Academic Motivation Scale. The Journal of Experimental Education, 83(1), 51–82.

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., y Tatham, R. L. (2006). Multivariate data analysis (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Hsu, L. (2013). Work motivation, job burnout, and employment aspiration in hospitality and tourism students—An exploration using the self-determination theory. Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education, 13, 180–189.

Hu, L., y Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1–55.

Jöreskog, K. G., & Sörbom, D. (1993). LISREL 8: Structural equation modeling with the SIMPLIS command language. Scientific Software International.

Kim, H., y Cho, Y. (2014). Pre-service teachers’ motivation, sense of teaching efficacy, and expectation of reality shock. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 42(1), 67–81.

Koludrović, M., y Ercegovac, I. R. (2015). Academic Motivation in the Context of Self-Determination Theory in Initial Teacher Education, 17(1), 25–36.

Litalien, D., Guay, F., y Morin, A. J. S. (2015). Motivation for PhD studies: Scale development and validation. Learning and Individual Differences, 41, 1–13.

Lomax, R. G., y Schumacker, R. E. (2012). A beginner’s guide to structural equation modeling. Erlbaum: Routledge Academic.

Mattos, B., Prados, E., y Padua, D. (2013). La voz del alumnado: Una investigación narrativa acerca de lo que siente, piensa, dice y hace el alumnado de Magisterio de Educación Física en su formación inicial. Movimento: Revista Da Escola de Educação Física, 19(4), 251–269.

Ng, J. Y. Y., Ntoumanis, N., Thogersen-Ntoumani, C., Deci, E. L., Ryan, R. M., Duda, J. L., y Williams, G. C. (2012). Self-determination theory applied to health contexts: a meta-analysis. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 7(4), 325–340.

Nunnally, I. H., y Bernstein, J. C. (1994). Psychometric theory. New York McGraw‐Hill.

Núñez, J. L., Martín-Albo, J., y Navarro, J. G. (2005). Validación de la versión española de la Échelle de Motivation en Éducation. Psicothema, 17(2), 344–349.

Núñez, J. L., Martín-Albo, J., Navarro, J. G., y Suárez, Z. (2010). Adaptación y validación de la versión española de la Escala de Motivación Educativa en estudiantes de educación secundaria postobligatoria. Estudios de Psicología, 31(1), 89–100.

Pelletier, L. G., Rocchi, M. A., Vallerand, R. J., Deci, E. L., y Ryan, R. M. (2013). Validation of the revised sport motivation scale (SMS-II). Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 14(3), 329–341.

Pintrich, P. R. (2003). A motivational science perspective on the role of student motivation in learning and teaching contexts. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(4), 667–686.

Ratelle, C. F., Guay, F., Vallerand, R. J., Larose, S., y Senécal, C. (2007). Autonomous, controlled, and amotivated types of academic motivation: A person-oriented analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99(4), 734.

Ryan, R. M., y Connell, J. P. (1989). Perceived locus of causality and internalization: examining reasons for acting in two domains. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57(5), 749–761.

Stover, J. B., de la Iglesia, G., Boubeta, A. R., y Fernández-Liporace, M. (2012). Academic motivation scale: Adaptation and psychometric analyses for high school and college students. Psychology Research and Behavior Management, 5, 71–83.

Uyulgan, M. A., y Akkuzu, N. (2014). An Overview of Student Teachers’ Academic Intrinsic Motivation. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 14(1), 24–32.

Vallerand, R. J. (2000). Deci and Ryan’s self-determination theory: A view from the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 312–318.

Vallerand, R. J., y Bissonnette, R. (1992). Intrinsic, extrinsic, and amotivational styles as predictors of behavior: A prospective study. Journal of Personality, 60(3), 599–620.

Vallerand, R. J., Blais, M. R., Brière, N. M., y Pelletier, L. G. (1989). Construction et validation de l’échelle de motivation en éducation (EME). Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 21(3), 323–349.

Vallerand, R. J., Pelletier, L. G., Blais, M. R., Briere, N. M., Senecal, C., y Vallieres, E. F. (1992). The Academic Motivation Scale: A measure of intrinsic, extrinsic, and amotivation in education. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 53(4), 1003–1017.

Vansteenkiste, M., Sierens, E., Soenens, B., Luyckx, K., y Lens, W. (2009). Motivational profiles from a self-determination perspective: The quality of motivation matters. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101(3), 671–688.

Wilson, P. M., Rodgers, W. M., Loitz, C. C., y Scime, G. (2006). It’s who I am really! The importance of integrated regulation in exercise contexts. Journal of Applied Biobehavioral Research, 11(2), 79–104.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Murcia

Open AccessSello de Calidad FECyT 2013ClarivAnaliticsWJ.jpgScielo-Españadoajscimago