Development and validation of a questionnaire on normative organizational commit-ment: A pilot study in Mexicans workers.

Norma Betanzos-Diaz, Cynthia Shugey Rodríguez-Loredo, Francisco Paz-Rodríguez


A questionnaire for measuring commitment in its normative dimension, based on reciprocity and responsibility as value to the work where a link to the organization based on loyalty of workers set was developed. An initial 30 item bank, built and reviewed with rigorous criteria were applied to a sample of 298 employees in a departament store chain (168 women, 56.4%, 130 men), aged between 18 and 65 (M = 32.5, SD = 9.6) years and schooling Baccalaureate (199, 67.8%). The seniority ranging from 1 to 34 years (M = 4.4 years, SD = 5.7). Using exploratory factor analysis with 28 items two factors explaining 45.1% of variance was identified: the first known loyalty-reciprocity; and the second compliance-responsibility. Reliability analysis indicated adequate internal consistency, α = .88. Concurrent validity was assessed by Pearson correlation with Organizational Commitment Questionnaire and Scale Values to Work. The results indicated that the dimensions of the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire Standards may be an option to assess this construct.


Normative commitment; instrumental study; exploratory factor analysis; responsibility; moral commitment; loyalty; reciprocity.

Full Text:



Allen, N.J. (2003). Examining organizational commitment in China. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 62, 511-515. Doi: 10.1016/S0001-8791(02)00065-9

Allen, N. J., y Meyer, J. P. (1990). The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the organization. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 1−18.

Arciniega, L. M., y González, L. (2000). Desarrollo y validación de la escala de valores hacia el trabajo EVAT 30. [Development and validation of the work values scale EVAT 30]. Revista de Psicología Social, 15, 281-296.

Arciniega, L. M., y González, L. (2006). What is the influence of work values relative to other variables in the development of organizational commitment? Revista de Psicología Social, 21(1), 35-50.

Arciniega, L. M., y González, L. (2012). Explorando los flancos de la lealtad: Análisis de la estructura y significado de la dimensión normativa del compromiso organizacional. [Exploring the flanks of loyalty: Analyzing the structure and meaning of the normative dimension of organizational commitment]. Revista de Psicología Social, 27, 273-85. Doi: 10.1174/021347412802845568

Ato, M., López-García, J., y Benavente, A. (2013). Un sistema de clasificación de los diseños de investigación en psicología. [A classification system for research designs in psychology].
Anales de Psicología, 29, 1038-1059. Doi:

Becker, H. P. (1956). Man in reciprocity. New York: Praeger.

Becker, H. S. (1960). Notes on the concept of commitment. American Journal of Sociology, 66, 32−40.

Bergman, M. E. (2006). The relationship between affective and normative commitment: Review and research agenda. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27, 645−663. Doi: 10.1002/job.372

Betanzos-Díaz, N., Andrade-Palos, P. y Paz-Rodríguez, F. (2006). Compromiso organizacional en una muestra de trabajadores mexicanos. [Dimensions of organizational commitment among mexican workers]. Revista de Psicología del Trabajo y de las Organizaciones, 22(1), 25-43.

Betanzos-Díaz, N y Paz-Rodríguez F. (2007). Análisis Psicométrico del Compromiso Organizacional como variable actitudinal. [Psychometric Analysis on Organizational Commitment as attitudinal variable]. Anales de Psicología, 23(2), 207-215.

Bowie, N. E. (1982). Business Ethics. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Buchanan, B. (1974). Building organizational commitment: The socialization of managers in works organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly, 19, 533-546.

Chen, Z. X., y Francesco, A. M. (2003). The relationship between the three components of commitment and employee performance in China. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 62, 490-510. Doi: 10.1016/S0001-8791(02)00064-7

Cheng, Y., y Stockdale, M. S. (2003). The validity of the three-component model of organizational commitment in a Chinese context. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 62, 465-489. Doi:10.1016/S0001-8791(02)00063-5

Cohen, A. (2007). Commitment before and after: An evaluation and reconceptualization of organizational commitment. Human Resource Management Review, 17, 336−354. Doi: 10.1016/j.hrmr.2007.05.001

Cook, J., y Wall, T. (1980). New work attitude measures of trust, organizational commitment and personal need non-fulfillment. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 53, 39-52.

Cooper-Hakim, A., y Viswesvaran, C. (2005). The construct of work commitment: Testing an integrative framework. Psychological Bulletin, 131, 241-59.

Culpepper, R. A. (2000). A test of revised scales for the Meyer and Allen (1991) three-component commitment construct. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 60 (4), 604-616. Doi: 10.1177/00131640021970754

DeCottis, T. A., y Summers, T. P. (1987). A path analysis of a model of the antecedents and consequences of organizational commitment. Human Relations, 40, 445-470.

Einsemberg, R., Armeli, S., Rexwinkel, B., Lynch, P., y Rhoades, L. (2001). Reciprocation of perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(1), 42-51. Doi: 10.1037//0021-9010.86.1.42

Ferrando, P. J. y Lorenzo-Seva, U. (2013). Unrestricted item factor analysis and some relations with item response theory. Technical Report. Department of Psy- chology, Universitat Rovira i Virgili. Retrieved from

Ferrando, P. J., y Lorenzo-Seva, U. (2014). El análisis factorial exploratorio de los ítems: algunas consideraciones adicionales. [Exploratory item factor analysis: Some additional considerations]. Anales de Psicología, 30, 1170-1175. Doi:

Ferris, K.R., y Aranya, M. (1983). A comparison of two organizational commitment scales. Personnel Psychology, 36, 87-97.

González, T. F., y Guillén, M. (2008). Organizational commitment: A proposal for a wider ethical conceptualization of “normative commitment”. Journal of Business Ethics, 78, 401−414. Doi: 10.1007/s10551-006-9333-9

Gouldner, A. W. (1960). The norm of reciprocity: a preliminary statement. American Sociological Review, 25(2), 161-178.

Hair, J., Anderson, R., Tatham, R., y Black, W. (1998). Multivariate data analysis. (5th ed.). London: Prentice-Hall International.

Jaros, S. J. (1997). An assessment of Meyer and Allen’s (1991) three-component model of organizational commitment and turnover intentions. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 51, 319–337. Doi:10.1006/jvbe.1995.1553

Jaros, S. J. (2007). Measurement issues in the Meyer and Allen model of organizational commitment. ICFAI Journal of Organizational Behavior, 6(4), 7-25.

Jaros, S. J. (2013). Two Faces of normative commitment? An analysis of the evidence. Proceedings of the Southwest Academy of Management Meetings, USA, 80-92.

Jaros, S., Jermier, J., Koehler, J. y Sincich, T. (1993). Effects of continuance, affective, and moral commitment on the withdrawal process: An evaluation of eight structural equation models. Academy of Management Journal, 35: 951-996. Doi: 10.2307/256642

Kanter, R. M. (1968). Commitment and social organization: A study of commitment mechanisms in utopian communities. American Sociological Review, 33 (4), 499-517.

Kerlinger, F., y Lee, H. (2001). Investigación del comportamiento. Métodos de investigación en ciencias sociales. México: Mc Graw Hill.

Kondratuk, T. B., Hausdorf, P. A., Korabik, K., y Hazel, M. R. (2004). Linking career mobility with corporate loyalty: How does job change relate to organizational commitment? Journal of Vocational Behavior, 65 (2), 332−349. Doi:10.1016/j.jvb.2003.08.004

Lorenzo-Seva, U., y Ferrando, P. J. (2006). FACTOR: A computer program to fit the exploratory factor analysis model. Behavioral Research Methods, Instruments and Computers, 38(1), 88-91.

Lloret-Segura, S., Ferreres-Traver, A., Hernández-Baeza, A. y Tomás-Marco, I. (2014). El análisis factorial exploratorio de los items:una guía práctica, revisada y actualizada. [Exploratory item factor analysis: A practical guide revised and updated]. Anales de Psicología, 30, 1151-1169.

Mathieu, J. E. y Zajac, D. M. (1990). A review and meta-analysis of the antecedents, correlates, and consequences of organizational commitment. Psychological Bulletin, 108(2), 171-194. Doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.108.2.171

Meyer, J. P., Allen, N. J., y Smith, C. A. (1993). Commitment to organizations and occupations: Extension and test of a three-component conceptualization. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 538−551. Doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.78.4.538

Meyer, J. P., y Herscovitch, L. (2001). Commitment in the workplace: Toward the general model. Human Resource Management Review, 11, 299−326.

Meyer, J. P., y Parfyonova, N. M. (2010). Normative commitment in the workplace: A theoretical analysis and re-conceptualization. Human Resource Management Review, 20, 283-294. Doi: 10.1016/j.hrmr.2009.09.001

Meyer, J. P., Stanley, D. J., Herscovitch, L., y Topolnytsky, L. (2002). Affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the organization: A meta-analysis of antecedents, correlates, and consequences. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 61, 20−52. Doi:10.1006/jvbe.2001.1842

Meyer, J. P., Stanley, L. J., y Parfyonova, N. M. (2012) Employee commitment in context: The nature and implication of commitment profiles, Journal of Vocational Behavior, 80(1), 1-16. Doi: 10.1016/j.jvb.2011.09.005

Meyer, J. P., y Allen, N. J. (1991). A three-component conceptualization of organizational commitment. Human Resource Management Review, 1, 64−89. Doi: 10.1016/1053-4822(91)90011-Z

Moreno, R., Martínez, R. J. y Muñiz, J. (2004). Directrices para la construcción de ítems de elección múltiple. [Guidelines for the construction of multiple choice test items]. Psicothema, 16(3), 490-497.

Morrow, P. C. (1983). Redundancy in organizational research: The case of work commitment. The Academy of Management Review, 8(3), 486-500.

Morrow, P. C. (1993). The theory and measurement of work commitment. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

Mowday, R.T., Porter, L.W., y Steers, R.M. (1982). Employee-organization linkages. The psychology of commitment, absenteeism, and turnover. New York: Academic Press.

Mowday, R. T. (1998). Reflections on the study and relevance of organizational commitment. Human Resource Management Review, 8(4), 387−401.

Nunnally, J. C. y Bernstein, I. H. (1995). Teoría psicométrica. México: McGraw-Hill.

O´Reilly, C. A., y Chatman, J. A. (1986). Organizational commitment and psychological attachment: The effects of compliance, identification, and internalization on prosocial behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 492-499.

Porter, L.W., Crampon, W.J., y Smith F. J. (1976). Organizational commitment and managerial turnover: A longitudinal study. Organizational Behavior and human performance, 15, 87-98.

Porter, L.W., Steers, R.M., Mowday, R.T. y Boulian, P.V. (1974). Organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and turnover among psychiatric technicians. Journal of Applied Psychology, 59, 603-609.

Reichers, A.E. (1985). A review and reconceptualization of organizational commitment. Academy of management review, 10, 465-476.

Settoon, R. P., Bennett, N., y Liden, R. C. (1996). Social exchange in organizations: Perceived organizational support, leader-member exchange, and employee reciprocity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81, 219-227.

Somers, M. J. (2010). Patterns of attachment to organizations: Commitment profiles and work outcomes. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 83, 443-453. Doi:10.1348/096317909X424060

Swailes S. (2002). Organizational Commitment: a critique of the construct and measures. International Journal of Management Reviews. 4(2), 155-178. Doi: 10.1111/1468-2370.00082

Vardi, Y. y Wiener, Y. (1996) Misbehavior in Organizations: A Motivational Framework. Organization Science, 7(2), 151-165.

Wasti, S. A. (2005). Commitment profiles: Combinations of organizational commitment forms and job outcomes. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 67, 290–308. Doi:10.1016/j.jvb.2004.07.002

Wiener, Y., y Gechman, A.S. (1977). Commitment: A behavioral approach to job involvement. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 10, 47-52.

Wiener, Y. (1982). Commitment in organizations: A normative view. Academy of Management Review, 7, 418−428.

Yao, X., y Wang, L. (2006). The predictability of normative organizational commitment for turnover in Chinese companies: a cultural perspective. The International Journal of Human Resource Management. 17 (6), 1058- 1075. Doi:10.1080/09585190600696671



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Servicio de Publicaciones, Universidad de Murcia (Spain)

Open AccessSello de Calidad FECyT 2013Thomson-Reuters-JCRScielo-Españadoajscimago