Young people belonging to violent groups in the Region of Madrid. Psychosocial process model on the onset and evolution of violent identity behaviour

María-Jesús Martín, José-Manuel Martínez, Begoña Aramayona, Rubén García-Sánchez, Carmen Almendros, Cristina Jiménez


The qualitative research about out-group violence has examined different aspects of this social problem, but the evolution of violent groups has only been approached tangentially. This research analyses the discourses of 124 interviews done with youth from Madrid that belong to violent groups. Describe the interpretation made by young people and identifies variables and psychosocial processes to generate and explore a psychosocial model that attempts to describe the constitution and evolution of this behavior. The strategy of theory generation was applied (first 71 interviews) and afterwards, the method of analytic induction (following 53 interviews) to allow the validation of the identified model. The resulting method proposes that the upsurge of violent groups depends on the previous socialisation focused on three factors: milieu, opportunities and basic socialising processes. The evolution and involution of violent groups would depend on the interaction between the personal and social identities of its members.


Qualitative analysis; Gangs; Interview; Processual Model.

Full Text:

PDF PDF (Español)


Abrams, L. S. y Aguilar, J. P. (2005). Negative trends, possible selves, behavior change: a qualitative study of juvenile offenders in residential treatment. Qualitative Social Work, 4, 175-196. doi: 10.1177/1473325005052392

Adán-Revilla, T. (1996). Ultras y skinheads: la juventud visible. Imágenes, estilos y conflictos de las subculturas juveniles en España. [Ultras and skinheads: visible youth. Images, styles and conflicts of youth subcultures in Spain]. Oviedo: Nobel.

Álvarez-Gayou, J. L. (2003). Cómo hacer investigación cualitativa. Fundamentos y metodología. [How do qualitative research. Fundamentals and Methodology]. México: Paidós Educador.

Autor (2005, 2009)

Bandura, A. (1987). Pensamiento y acción. Fundamentos sociales. [Thought and action. Social foundations]. Barcelona: Martínez Roca.

Berk, R. A. (1974). Collective behavior. Dubuque, W.C: Brown.

Bjerregaard, B. y Smith, C. A. (1993). Gender differences in gang participation, delinquency, and substance use. Journal of Quantitative Criminology 9(4), 329-355. doi: 10.1007/BF01064108

Denzin, N. (1989). Interpretative biography. Qualitative research methods. Newbury Park: Sage Publications.

Devos, T. y Deschamps, J. C. (1996). Relaciones entre identidad social e identidad personal. [The relationships between individual and collective identities]. En J. F Morales, D. Paez, J. C. Deschamps y S. Worchel (Eds.), Identidad social: Aproximaciones psicosociales a los grupos y a las relaciones entre grupos (pp. 39-55). Valencia: Promolibro.

Espada, J. P. y Méndez, X. (2002). Factores familiares, comportamientos perturbadores y drogas en la adolescencia. [Family factors, disruptive behavior and drug use in adolescence]. En J. R. Fernández y R. Secades (Eds.), Intervención familiar en la prevención de las drogodependencias (pp. 21-55). Madrid: Ministerio del Interior.

Flick, U. (2004). Introducción a la investigación cualitativa. [Introduction to Qualitative Research]. Madrid: Morata.

Hammersley, M. (1992). What's wrong with ethnography? Methodological explorations. New York: Routledge.

Herriot, P. (2007). Religious and Social Identity. Nueva York: Routledge.

Hewstone, M. (1990). Attributional bases of intergroup conflict. En W. Stroebe, A. Kruglanski, D. Bar-Tal y M.

Hewstone (Eds.), The social psychology of intergroup conflict: theory, research and applications (pp. 47-71). Nueva York: Springer.

Hinkle, S. W. y Taylor, L. A. (1996). Identidad social y aspectos de la creatividad social: cambios a nuevas dimensiones de comparación intergrupal. [Social identity and social aspects of creativity: updates to new dimensions of intergroup comparison]. En J. F Morales, D. Paez, J. C. Deschamps y S. Worchel (Eds.), Identidad Social: Aproximaciones psicosociales a los grupos y a las relaciones entre grupos (pp. 53-74). Valencia: Promolibro.

Hunt, G. P. y Laidler, K. J. (2001). Situations of violence in the lives of girl gang members. Health Care for Women International, 22(4), 363-384. doi: 10.1080/07399330152398909

Javaloy, F., Rodríguez, Á. y Espelt, E. (2001). Comportamiento colectivo y movimientos sociales. [Collective Behavior and Social Movements]. Madrid: Prentice-Hall.

Kennedy, L. W. y Baron, S. W. (1993). Routine activities and a subculture of violence: a study of violence on the street. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 30(1), 88-112. doi: 10.1177/0022427893030001006

Krug, E. G., Dahlberg, L. L, Mercy, J. A., Zwi, A. B. y Lozano, R. (Eds.) (2003). Informe mundial sobre la violencia y la salud. [World report on violence and health]. Washington: Organización Panamericana de la Salud.

Maccoby, E. E. (1992). The role of parents in the socialization of children: An historical overview. Developmental Psychology, 28, 1006-1017.

Martín, A., Martínez, J. M., López, J., Martín, M. J. y Martín, J. M. (1998). Comportamientos de riesgo: violencia, prácticas sexuales de riesgo y consumo de drogas ilegales en la juventud. [Risk behaviors: violence, unsafe sex and illegal drug use in youth]. Madrid: Entinema.

Miles, M. B. y Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative Data Analysis. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage.

Ministerio de Justicia. (2013). Memoria de la Fiscalía General del Estado. [Report of the Attorney General of the State]. Madrid: Ministerio de Justicia.

Patterson, G. R., Reid, J. B. y Dishion, T. J. (1992). Antisocial boys. Eugene, OR: Castalia.

Perry, J. B. y Pugh, M. D. (1978). Collective behavior: Response to social strees. St Paul: West.

Pettigrew, T. F. (1979). The ultimate attribution error: Extending Allport’s cognitive analysis of prejudice. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 5(4), 28-36. doi: 10.1177/014616727900500407

Pozo, A., Gallego, P., Vicente, F. y Pérez, M. L. (2013). Spain, National Analysis. En S. Brutto y A. Minesso (Eds.) Interaction of different subjects. Towards a strategic Common answer concerning juvenile gangs (pp. 142-96). Verona: Tipolitografía don Calabria.

Reilly, J., Muldoon, O. T. y Byrne, C. (2004). Young men as victims and perpetrators of violence in Northern Ireland: A Qualitative Analysis. Journal of Social Issues, 60(3), 469-484. doi: 10.1111/j.0022-4537.2004.00367.x

Rodríguez, P. (2000). Adicción a sectas. Pautas para el análisis, prevención y tratamiento. [Addiction sects. Guidelines for analysis, prevention and treatment]. Barcelona: Ediciones B.

Ross, L. (1977). The intuitive psychologist and his shortcomings: Distorsions in the atribution process. En L.

Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (vol. 10, pp. 173-220). Nueva York: Academic.

Scandroglio, B., López, J. S., Martínez, J. M., Martín, M. J., San José, M. C. y Martín, A. (2003). La conducta violenta en grupos juveniles. Características descriptivas. [Violent behavior in youth groups. Descriptive characteristics]. Revista de Estudios de Juventud, 62/03, 151-158.

Snyder, M. (1981). On the self-perpetuating nature of social stereotypes. En D. L. Hamilton (Ed.), Cognitive processes in stereotyping and intergroup behaviour (pp. 183-212). Hillsdale: Erlbaum.

Strauss, A. y Corbin, J. (1990). Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques. Londres: Sage.

Tajfel, H. y Turner, J. C. (1979). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. En W. G. Austin y S. Worchel (Eds.), The Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations (pp. 33-47). Monterey, CA: Brooks-Cole.

Tajfel, H. y Turner, J. C. (1986). The social identity theory of intergroup behavior. En S. Worchel y W. Austin (Eds.). Psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 7-24). Chicago: Nelson-Hall.

Taylor, S. J. y Bodgan, R. (1997). Introducción a los métodos cualitativos en investigación. [Introduction to Qualitative Research Methods]. Barcelona: Paidós Básica.

Turner, J. C. (1995). Self-categorization theory. En A. S. R. Manstead y M. Hewstone (Eds.): The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Social Psychology (pp. 562-567). Oxford: Blackwell.

Turner, R. H. y Killian, L. M. (1987) Collective behavior. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.

Vigil, J. D. y Yun S. C (2002). A cross-cultural framework to understand gangs: multiple marginality and Los Angeles. See Huff, 161–174.

Yonas, M., O´Campo, P., Burke, J. G. y Gielen, A. C. (2007). Neighborhood-level factors and youth violence: giving voice to the perceptions of prominent neighborhood individuals. Health Education and Behavior, 34, 669-685.

Zimmerman, M. A., Morrel-Samuels, S., Wong, N., Tarver, D., Rabiah, D. y White, S. (2004). Guns, gangs, and gossip: an analysis of student essays on youth violence. Journal of Early Adolescence, 24(4), 385-411. doi: 10.1177/0272431604268551



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Servicio de Publicaciones, Universidad de Murcia (Spain)

Open AccessSello de Calidad FECyT 2013ClarivAnaliticsWJ.jpgScielo-Españadoajscimago