Psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Coping Strategies Inventory (CSI) in elderly people

Laura Rubio, Cristina G. Dumitrache, Eulogio Cordón-Pozo, Ramona Rubio-Herrera


The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Coping Strategies Inventory (CSI) in a sample of 243 older people age 55 to 99 years old. The first order factorial structure was similar to the structure of the original version of the CSI and to the Spanish adaptation with general population. Furthermore high levels of internal consistency and of convergent validity were observed in the different primary scales. Nevertheless the problem avoidance scale did not surpass the validity and reliability tests. Due to it we propose to delete two of the items of this scale.  On the other hand, in this study we confirmed the secondary and tertiary structure obtained in the original version of the inventory that was neither confirmed in the Spanish adaptation study nor the other studies on the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the CSI.


CSI, coping, elderly, psychometric properties, Spanish version

Full Text:



Bagozzi, R. P., & Yi, Y. (1988). On the evaluation of structural equation models. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 16(1), 74-94. doi: 10.1007/BF02723327

Bagozzi, R. P., Yi, Y., & Phillips, L. W. (1991). Assessing construct valid-ity in organizational research. Administrative Science Quarterly,36(3), 421-458. doi: 10.2307/2393203

Brown, T. A. (2006). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. New York: Guilford Press.

Bueno, B., & Navarro, A. B. (2003). Identificación de los problemas, afrontamiento y relación con la satisfacción vital en personas muy mayores. Mapfre Medicina, 14(1), 37-50.

Byrne, B. M. (2012). Structural equation modeling with Mplus: Basic concepts, applications, and programming. New York: Routledge.

Cano, F. J., Rodríguez, L., & García, J. (2007). Spanish version of the Coping Strategies Inventory. Actas Españolas De Psiquiatría, 35(1), 29-39.

Caprara, G. V., & Steca, P. (2005). Affective and social self-regulatory efficacy beliefs as determinants of positive thinking and happiness. European Psychologist, 10(4), 275-275-286. doi: 10.1027/1016-9040.10.4.275

Carver, C. S., Scheier, M. F., & Weintraub, J. K. (1989). Assessing coping strategies: A theoretically based approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56(2), 267-283. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.56.2.267

Crespo, M., & Cruzado, J. (1997). La evaluación del afrontamiento: Adaptación española del cuestionario COPE con una muestra de estudiantes universitarios. Análisis y Modificación de Conducta, 23(92), 797-830.

Englbrecht, M., Gossec, L., DeLongis, A., Scholte-Voshaar, M., Sokka, T., Kvien, T. K., & Schett, G. (2012). The impact of coping strategies on mental and physical well-being in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism, 41(4), 545-555. doi: 10.1016/j.semarthrit.2011.07.009

Finney, S. J., & DiStefano, Ch. (2013). Nonnormal and categorical data in structural equation modeling, in G.R. Hancock, & R.O. Mueller, Structural Equation Modeling. A second course (2nd ed.) (pp.439-492). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.

Folkman, S. (1984). Personal control and stress and coping processes: A theoretical analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46(4), 839-852. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.46.4.839

Folkman, S., & Lazarus, R. S. (1980). An analysis of coping in a middle-aged community sample. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 21(3), 219-239. doi: 10.2307/2136617

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50. doi: 10.2307/3151312

Godoy Izquierdo, D., Godoy García, J. F., López-Chicheri Garcia, I., Martínez Delgado, A., Gutiérrez Jiménez, S., & Vázquez Vázquez, L. (2008). Propiedades psicométricas de la Escala de Autoeficacia para el Afrontamiento del Estrés (EAEAE). Psicothema, 20(1), 155-165.

Gustems-Carnicer, J. G., & Calderón, C. (2013). Coping strategies and psychological well-being among teacher education students: Coping and well-being in students. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 28(4), 1127-1140. doi: 10.1007/s10212-012-0158-x

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C, Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2014). Multivariate data analysis. NewYork: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in co-variance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1-55. doi: 10.1080/10705519909540118

Jylha, M. (2004). Old age and loneliness: Cross-sectional and longitu-dinal analyses in the Tampere longitudinal study on aging. Canadian Journal on Aging, 23(2), 157-68. doi: 10.1353/cja.2004.0023

Keyes, C. L. M., Shmotkin, D., & Ryff, C. D. (2002). Optimizing well-being: The empirical encounter of two traditions. Journal of Person-ality and Social Psychology, 82(6), 1007-1022. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.82.6.1007

Kirchner, T., Forns, M., Muñoz, D., & Pereda, N. (2008). Psychometric Properties and Dimensional Structure of Coping Responses Inventory Adult Form. Psicothema, 20(4), 902-909.

Krzemien, D., Urquijo, S., & Monchietti, A. (2004). Aprendizaje social y estrategias de afrontamiento a los sucesos críticos del enveje-cimiento femenino. Psicothema 16(3), 350-356.

Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer.

Maddi, S. R. (1980). Personality as a resource in stress resistance. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, Montreal.

Martin, P., Kliegel, M., Rott, C., Poon, L. W., & Johnson, M. A. (2008). Age differences and changes of coping behavior in three age groups: Findings from the Georgia Centenarian Study. The International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 66(2), 97-114. doi: 10.2190/AG.66.2.a

Meléndez, J. C., Mayordomo, T., Sancho, P., & Tomás, J. M. (2012). Coping strategies: Gender differences and development throughout life span. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 15(3), 1089-1098. doi: 10.5209/rev_SJOP.2012.v15.n3.39399

Meléndez, J. C., Tomás, J. M., & Navarro, E. (2007). Análisis de las redes sociales en la vejez a través de la entrevista Manhein de apo-yo social. Salud Pública de México, 49(6), 408-414.

Menninger, W. W. (1999). Adaptational challenges and coping in late life. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 63(2), 4-15.

Moos, R. H. (1993). Coping Responses Inventory: CRI Adult Form. Professional Manual. Odessa: Psychological Assessment Resources.

Moos, R. H., Brennan, P. L., Schutte, K. K., & Moos, B. S. (2006). Older adults' coping with negative life events: Common processes of managing health, interpersonal, and financial/work stressors. The International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 62(1), 39-59. doi: 10.2190/ENLH-WAA2-AX8J-WRT1

Muthén, B. O., du Toit, S. H. C., & Spisic, D. (1997). Robust inference using weighted least squares and quadratic estimating equations in latent variable modeling with categorical and continuous outcomes (Unpublished technical report). Los Angeles: University of California. Retrieved from

Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998/2012). Mplus User’s Guide (7th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.

Nava, C., Ollua, P., Vega, C., & Soria, R. (2013). Inventario de estrategias de afrontamiento: Una replicación. Psicología y Salud, 20(2), 213-220.

Nunnally, J. C. (1967). Psychometric Theory (1st ed.). New York: MacGraw-Hill.

Ouwehand, C., De Ridder, D., & Bensing, J. (2007). A review of suc-cessful aging models: Proposing proactive coping as an important additional strategy. Clinical Psychology Review, 27(8), 873-884. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2006.11.003

Peterson, R. A. (1994). A meta-analysis of Cronbach’s coefficient al-pha. Journal of Consumer Research, 21(2), 381–391.

Rodríguez-Díaz, F. J., Estrada-Pineda, C., Rodríguez-Franco, L., & Bringas-Molleda, C. (2014). Adaptación del inventario de estrategias de afrontamiento (CSI) a la población penitenciaria de México. Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica, 27(3), 415-423. doi: 10.1590/1678-7153.201427301

Sandín, B., & Chorot, P. (2003). Cuestionario de afrontamiento del es-trés (CAE): desarrollo y validación preliminar. Revista de Psicopatología y Psicología Clínica, 8(1), 39-54. doi: 10.5944/rppc.vol.8.num.1.2003.3941

Sharma, S. (1996). Applied multivariate techniques. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Skinner, E. A., Edge, K., Altman, J., & Sherwood, H. (2003). Searching for the structure of coping: A review and critique of category systems for classifying ways of coping. Psychological Bulletin, 129(2), 216-269. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.129.2.216

Stefani, D., & Feldberg, C. (2006). Estrés y estilos de afrontamiento en la vejez: Un estudio comparativo en senescentes argentinos insti-tucionalizados y no institucionalizados. Anales de psicología, 22(2), 267-272. doi: 10.6018/25951

Tobin, D. L., Holroyd, K. A., Reynolds, R. V., & Wigal, J. K. (1989). The hierarchical factor structure of the coping strategies inventory. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 13(4), 343-361. doi: 10.1007/BF01173478

Urquijo, S., Monchietti, A., & Krzemien, D. (2008). Adaptación a la cri-sis vital del envejecimiento: Rol de los estilos de personalidad y de la apreciación cognitiva en adultas mayores. Anales de Psicología, 24(2), 299-311. doi: 10.6018/42841

Verma, J. P. (2013). Data analysis in management with SPSS software. Lon-don: Springer

Villar, F. (1997). Estrategias para afrontar el envejecimiento y diferencias asociadas a la edad: Una aproximación a través del análisis de contenido. Anuario de Psicología, 73, 57-69.

Villar, F., Triadó, C., Solé, C., & Osuna, M. (2003). Bienestar, adapta-ción y envejecimiento: Cuando la estabilidad significa cambio. Revista Multidisciplinar de Gerontología, 13(3), 152-162.

Wang, J., & Wang, X. (2012). Structural equation modeling: Applications using Mplus. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2016 Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Murcia

Open AccessSello de Calidad FECyT 2013Thomson-Reuters-JCRScielo-Españadoajscimago