Fostering engaged employees: the role of leadership and self-efficacy

  • Jacoba Tripiana
  • Susana Llorens Universitat Jaume I, Castellón
Keywords: Leadership, self-efficacy, engagement, public administration

Abstract

This study examines the role of supporting leadership and self-efficacy in the development of work engagement. We evaluate the mediating role of self-efficacy between leadership and work engagement in a sample of 271 employees from a Public Administration (City Hall). Results from the Structural Equation Modeling Analysis reveal that self-efficacy mediates the relationship between leadership and work engagement. The perception of having supporting leaders relates significantly with employees’ self-efficacy, which in turns, positively relates to work engagement.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Susana Llorens, Universitat Jaume I, Castellón

Susana Llorens Gumbau es doctora Europea en Psicología y Profesora Titular de Universidad especializada en Psicología del Trabajo en la Universitat Jaume I. Es miembro y responsable de investigación del Equipo WONT Prevenció Psicosocial (www.wont.uji.es) y codirectora del Máster Universitario de Psicología del Trabajo, de las Organizaciones y en Recursos Humanos.Tiene publicaciones sobre adicción al trabajo, burnout, tecnoestrés, adicción, engagement, flow, confianza, y Organizaciones Saludables. Es miembro de asociaciones científicas como la EAWOP (European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology), la SEPP (Sociedad Española de Psicología Positiva) y  SCEPS (Sociedad Científica Española de Psicología Social). Además, es miembro del Comité Editorial de la revista “Psicología del Trabajo y de las Organizaciones”.

References

Acosta, H., Salanova, S., y Llorens, S. (2012). ¿Cómo predicen las prácticas organizacionales el engagement en el trabajo en equipo?: El rol de la confianza organizacional. Ciencia y Trabajo, 13, 125-134.

Akaike, H. (1987). Factor analysis and AIC. Psychometrika, 52, 317–332. Doi: 10.1007/BF02294359

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy. The exercise of control. New York: Freeman & Co.

Bandura, A. (2000). Exercise of human agency through collective efficacy. Cur-rent Directions in Psychological Science, 9, 75-78. Doi: 10.1111/1467-8721.00064

Baron, R. M., y Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator- mediator variable distinc-tion in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic and statistical consideration. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173-1182. Doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.51.6.1173

Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press.

Brown, M. W., y Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. En K. A. Bollen, y J. S. Long (Eds.), Testing structural equation models (pp. 136–162). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Cruz-Ortiz, V., Salanova, M., y Martínez, I. (2013). Liderazgo transformacional y desempeño grupal: unidos por el engagement grupal. Revista de Psicología Social, 28, 183-196.

Del Líbano, M., Llorens, S., Salanova, M., y Schaufeli, W. B. (2012). About the bright and dark sides of self-efficacy: Work engagement and workahol-ism. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 15, 688-701. Doi: 10.5209/rev_SJOP.2012.v15.n2.38883

Demerouti, E., Bakker, A.B., Nachreiner, F., y Schaufeli, W.B. (2001). The job demands-resources model of burnout. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 499–512. Doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.86.3.499

Dumdum, U. R., Lowe, K. B., y Avolio, B. J. (2002). A meta-analysis of trans-formational and transactional leadership correlates of effectiveness and sat-isfaction: an update and extension. En B. J. Avolio, y F. J. Yammarino (Eds.), Transformational and charismatic leadership: the road ahead (pp. 36-66). Oxford: Elsevier Science.

Fornell, C., y Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18, 39-50. Doi: 10.2307/3151312

Fredrickson, B. (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist, 56, 218-226. Doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.56.3.218

Hakanen, J. J., y Schaufeli, W. B. (2012). Do burnout and work engagement predict depressive symptoms and life satisfaction? A three-wave seven-year prospective study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 141, 415-424. Doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2012.02.043

Harvey, S., Kelloway, E. K., y Duncan-Leiper, L. (2003). Trust in management as a buffer of overload-strain relationships. Journal of Occupational Health Psy-chology, 8, 306-315. Doi: 10.1037/1076-8998.8.4.306

Hernández, I., Llorens, S., y Rodríguez, A. (2014). Empleados saludables y cali-dad de servicio en el sector sanitario. Anales de Psicología, 30, 247-258.

Hornung, S., y Glaser, J. (2010). Employee responses to relational fulfilment and work-life benefits. International Journal of Manpower, 31, 73-92.

Hoyle, R. H. (1995). The structural equation modeling approach: Basic concepts and fundamental issues. En R. H. Hoyle (Ed.), Structural Equation Modeling, Concepts, Issues and applications (pp. 1-15). Thousand Oaks, Ca: Sage.

James, L. R., Mulaik, S. A., y Brett, J. M. (2006). A tale of two methods. Organi-zational Research Methods, 9, 233-244. Doi: 10.1177/1094428105285144

Karasek, R. A., y Theorell, T. (1990). Healthy work: Stress, productivity and the recon-struction of working life. Nueva York: Basic Books.

Karasek, R. A. (1979). Job demands, job decision latitude and mental strain. Im-plications for job redesign. Administrative Science Quarterly, 24, 285-308.

Llorens, S., Bakker, A. B., Schaufeli, W. B., y Salanova, M. (2006). Testing the robustness of the job demands–resources model. International Journal of Stress Management, 13, 378–391. Doi: 10.1037/1072-5245.13.3.378

Llorens, S., del Líbano, M., y Salanova, M. (2009). Modelos teóricos de salud ocupacional. En M. Salanova (Ed.), Psicología de la Salud Ocupacional (pp. 63–93). Madrid: Síntesis.

Llorens, S., García-Renedo, M., y Salanova, M. (2005). Burnout como consecuen-cia de una crisis de eficacia: Un estudio longitudinal en profesores de se-cundaria. Revista de Psicología del Trabajo y de las Organizaciones, 21, 55-70.

Llorens, S., Salanova, M., y Losilla, J. (2009). Liderazgo transformacional y capital psicológico positivo: Un estudio de caso en una empresa de la construcción. Directivos construcción, 220, 48-55.

Llorens, S., Schaufeli, W. B., Bakker, A. B., y Salanova, M. (2007). Does a posi-tive gain spiral of resources, efficacy beliefs and engagement exist? Computers in Human Behavior, 23, 825-841. Doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2004.11.012

MacCallum, R. C., Browne, M. W., y Sugawara, H. M. (1996). Power analysis and determination of sample size for covariance structure modeling. Psychological Methods, 2, 130-149. Doi: 10.1037/1082-989X.1.2.130

Marsh, H. W., Balla, J. R., y Hau, K.T. (1996). An evaluation of incremental Fit Indices: A clarification of mathematical an empirical properties. En G.A. Marcoulides, y R.E. Schumacker (Eds.), Advanced structural equation modeling, issues and techniques (pp. 136-162). Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erkbaum Asso-ciates Publishers.

Nielsen, K., y Munir, F. (2009). How do transformational readers influence fol-lowers´affective well-being? Exploring the mediating role of self-efficacy. Work & Stress, 4, 313-329. Doi: 10.1080/02678370903385106

Nielsen, K., Yarker, J., Randall, F., y Munir, F. (2009). The mediating effects of team and self-efficacy on the relationship between transformational leader-ship, and job satisfaction and psychological well-being in healthcare profes-sionals: a cross-sectorial questionnaire survey. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 46, 1236-1244. Doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2009.03.001

Nunnally, J. C., y Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric Theory, 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Piccolo, R. F., Bardes, M., Mayer, D. M., y Judge, T. A. (2008). Does high quality leader-member exchange accentuate or attenuate organizational injus-tice? European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 17, 273-298. Doi: 10.1080/13594320701743517

Pillai, R., y Williams, E. A. (2004) Transformational leadership, self-efficacy, group cohesiveness, commitment, and performance. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 17, 144-159. Doi: 10.1108/09534810410530584

Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., y Podsakoff, N. (2012). Sources of method bias in social science reseach and recommendations on how to control it. Annual Review of Psychology, 63, 539-569. Doi: 10.1146/annurev-psych-120710-100452

Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., y Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Com-mon method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 879–903. Doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.88.5.879

Salanova, M., Grau, R., y Martinez, I. (2006). Job Demands and coping behav-iours: the moderating role of professional self-efficacy. Psychology in Spain, 10, 1-7.

Salanova, M., Grau, R., Cifre, E., y Llorens, S. (2000). Computer training, fre-quency of use and burnout: the moderating role of computer self-efficacy. Computers in Human Behavior, 16, 575-590. Doi: 10.1016/S0747-5632(00)00028-5

Salanova, M. (2009). Psicología de la salud ocupacional. Madrid: Editorial Síntesis.

Salanova, M., Agut, S., y Peiró, J. M. (2005). Linking organizational resources and work engagement to employee performance and customer loyalty: The mediation of service climate. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 1217–1227. Doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.90.6.1217

Salanova, M., Cifre, E., Martínez, I.M., Llorens, S., y Lorente, L. (2011). Psycho-social risks and positive factors among construction workers. En S. Clarke, C. Cooper, y R. Burke (Eds.), Occupational health and safety: Psychological and be-havioral challenges (pp. 295-320). UK: Gower.

Salanova, M., Cifre, E., Martínez, I.M., y Llorens, S. (2007). Caso a caso en la pre-vención de riesgos psicosociales. España: Lettera Publicaciones.

Salanova, M., Grau, R., Llorens, S., y Schaufeli, W. B. (2001). Exposición a las tecnologías de la información, burnout y engagement: el rol modulador de la autoeficacia. Revista de Psicología Social Aplicada, 11, 69-90.

Salanova, M., Llorens, S., Cifre, E., Martínez, I. M., y Schaufeli, W. B. (2003). Perceived collective efficacy, subjetive well–being and task performance among electronic work groups: An experimental study. Small Group Research, 34, 43–73. Doi: 10.1177/1046496402239577

Salanova, M., Llorens, S., Cifre, E., y Martínez, I. M. (2012). We need a Hero! Towards a validation of the HEalthy & Resilient Organization (HERO) model. Group & Organization Management, 37, 785-822.

Salanova, M., Llorens, S., y Schaufeli, W. B. (2011). Yes, I can, I feel good, and I just do it! On gain cycles and spirals of efficacy beliefs, affect, and engage-ment. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 60, 255-285. Doi: 10.1177/1059601112470405

Salanova, M., Martínez, I., y Llorens, S. (2012). Success breeds success, especially when self-efficacy is related to an internal attribution of causality. Estudios de Psicología, 33, 151-165. Doi: 10.1174/021093912800676420

Salanova, M., y Schaufeli, W. B. (2009). El engagement en el trabajo. Cuando el trabajo se convierte en pasión. Madrid: Alianza.

Schaufeli, W. B. (2012). Work Engagement. What do we know and where do we go? Romanian Journal of Applied Psychology, 14. 3-10.

Schaufeli, W. B., Salanova, M., González–Romá, V., y Bakker, A. B. (2002). The measurement of engagement and burnout: A two sample confirmatory fac-tor analytic approach. Journal of Happiness Studies, 3, 71–92. Doi: 10.1023/A:1015630930326

Schulz, R., Greenley, J., y Brown, R.L. (1995). Organization, management, and client effects on staff burnout. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 36, 333-345. Doi: 10.2307/2137323

Sobel, M. E. (1982). Asymptotic confidence intervals for indirect effects in struc-tural equation models. En S. LeinharDT (Ed.), Sociological methodology (pp. 290-312). Washington, DC: American Sociological Association.

Sparr, J. L., y Sonnentag, S. (2008). Fairness perceptions of supervisor feedback, LMX, and employee well-being at work. European Journal of Work and Organ-izational Psychology, 17, 198-225. Doi: 10.1080/13594320701743590

Torrente, P., Salanova, M., Llorens, S., y Schaufeli, W. B. (2012). Teams make it work: How team work engagement mediates between social resources and performance in teams. Psicothema, 24, 106–112.

Turner, N., Barling, J., y Zacharatos, A. (2002). Positive Psychology at work. En C. Snyder, y J. Shane (Eds.), Handbook of Positive Psychology (pp. 715-728). New York: Oxford University Press.

Walumbwa, F.O., Bruce, J., Avolio, B., y Zhu, W. (2008). How transformational leadership weaves its influence on individual job performance: the role of identification and efficacy beliefs. Personnel Psychology, 61, 793–825. Doi: 10.1111/j.1744-6570.2008.00131.x

Walumbwa, F. O., Wang, P., Lawler, J. J., y Shi, K. (2004). The role of collective efficacy in the relations beween transformational leadership and work out-comes. Journal of Organizational and Occupational Psychology, 77, 515-553. Doi: 10.1348/0963179042596441

Wood, R. E., Goodman, J. S., Beckmann, N., y Cook, A. (2008). Mediation test-ing in management research: A review and proposals. Organizational Research Methods, 11, 270-295. Doi: 10.1177/1094428106297811

Xanthopoulou, D., Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., y Schaufeli, W. B. (2007). How job and personal resources influence work engagement and financial turno-ver: A diary study in a Greek fast–food company. International Journal of Stress Management, 14, 121–141. Doi: 10.1037/1072-5245.14.2.121

Published
25-04-2015
How to Cite
Tripiana, J., & Llorens, S. (2015). Fostering engaged employees: the role of leadership and self-efficacy. Anales De Psicología / Annals of Psychology, 31(2), 636-644. https://doi.org/10.6018/analesps.31.2.179561
Section
Social and Organizational Psychology