How do students self-regulate? Review of Zimmerman’s cyclical model of self-regulated learning

Ernesto Panadero, Jesús Alonso-Tapia

Abstract


The use of learning strategies is crucial for students’ academic performance and promoting deeper learning approaches. The self-regulated learning models offer comprehensive theoretical backgrounds. These enable more holistic approaches to the use of learning strategies. In this paper, Zimmerman’s (2000; 2003; Zimmerman & Moylan, 2009) cyclical model of self-regulated learning  is described and analysed as one of the most comprehensive. The model is grounded in social cognitive theory and is comprised of three phases (forethought, performance and self-reflection) with a special focus on the influences of motivation on self-regulation. The different processes included in the model are analysed here in detail. Zimmerman’s framework is considered in relation to other self-regulated learning models in order to recognize its importance in theory and practice.

Keywords


Self-regulated learning; self-regulation; self-regulation model; Zimmerman; learning strategies; motivation; volition; self-efficacy; self-assessment; attributions

Full Text:

PDF PDF (Español)

References


Alonso-Tapia, J. (2005a). Motivar en la escuela, motivar en la familia. Madrid: Morata.

Alonso-Tapia, J. (2005b). Motives, expectancies and value-interests related to learning: The MEVA questionnaire. Psicothema, 17(3), 404-411.

Alonso-Tapia, J., & Fernandez, B. (2008). Development and initial validation of the classroom motivational climate questionnaire (CMCQ). Psicothema, 20(4), 883-889.

Alonso-Tapia, J., Huertas, J. A., & Ruiz, M. A. (2010). On the nature of motivational orientations: Implications of assessed goals and gender differences for motivational goal theory. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 13(1), 232-243.

Alonso-Tapia, J., & Panadero, E. (2010). Effect of self-assessment scripts on self-regulation and learning. Infancia y Aprendizaje, 33(3), 385-397.

Alonso-Tapia, J., & Pardo, A. (1986). ¿Cuándo se pregunta la gente por qué y qué es lo que le mueve a hacerlo? Revista de Ciencias de la Educación, 126, 159-174.

Andrade, & Valtcheva, A. (2009). Promoting learning and achievement through self-assessment. Theory Into Practice, 48(1), 12-19.

Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Bandura, A. (1991). Social cognitive theory of self-regulation. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 248-287.

Boekaerts, M. (1999). Motivated learning: Studying student situation transactional units. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 14(1), 41-55. doi: 10.1007/bf03173110

Boekaerts, M., & Corno, L. (2005). Self-regulation in the classroom: A perspective on assessment and intervention. Applied Psychology-an International Review-psychologie Appliquee-revue Internationale, 54(2), 199-231.

Boekaerts, M., & Niemivirta, M. (2000). Self-regulated learning: Finding a balance between learning goals and ego-protective goals. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation (pp. 417-451). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Corno, L. (2001). Volicional aspects of self-regulated learning. In B. J. Zimmerman & D. H. Schunk (Eds.), Self-regulated learning and academic achievement (Second ed., pp. 191-226). New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Corno, L. (2008). Work habits and self-regulated learning: Helping students to find a "Will" from a "Way". In D. H. Schunk & B. J. Zimmerman (Eds.), Motivation and self-regulated learning. Theory, research and applications (pp. 197-222). New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Dembo, M., & Seli, H. (2008). Motivation and learning strategies for college success: A self-management approach. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Dignath, C., & Büttner, G. (2008). Components of fostering self-regulated learning among students. A meta-analysis on intervention studies at primary and secondary school level. Metacognition and Learning, 3, 231-264. doi: 10.1007/s11409-008-9029-x

Dignath, C., Büttner, G., & Langfeldt, H. (2008). How can primary school students learn self-regulated learning strategies most effectively? A meta-analysis on self-regulation training programmes. Educational Research Review, 3(2), 101-129. doi: 10.1016/j.edurev.2008.02.003

Dochy, F., Segers, M., & Sluijsmans, D. (1999). The use of self-, peer- and co-assessment in higher education. A review. Studies in Higher Education, 24(3), 331-350.

Elliot, A. J. (1999). Approach and avoidance motivation and achievement goals. Educational Psychologist, 34(3), 169 - 189.

Elliot, A. J. (2005). A conceptual history of the achievement goal construct. In A. J. Elliot & C. S. Dweck (Eds.), Handbook of competence and motivation (pp. 52-72). New York: Guilford.

Elliot, A. J., & Covington, M. V. (2001). Approach and avoidance motivation. Educational Psychology Review, 13(2), 73-92. doi: 10.1023/a:1009009018235

Ericsson, K. A., Charness, N., Feltovich, P. J., & Hoffman, R. R. (2006). The Cambridge handbook of expertise and expert performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Grant, H., & Dweck, C. S. (2003). Clarifying achievement goals and their impact. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(3), 541-553. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.85.3.541

Harackiewicz, J. M., Barron, K. E., & Elliot, A. J. (1998). Rethinking achievement goals: When are they adaptive for college students and why? Educational Psychologist, 33(1), 1-21.

Heikkiläa, A., & Lonka, K. (2006). Studying in higher education: Students' approaches to learning, self-regulation, and cognitive strategies. Studies in Higher Education, 31, 99-117. doi: 10.1080/03075070500392433

Karabenick, S. A. (1998). Strategic help seeking: Implications for learning and teaching. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Kostons, D., van Gog, T., & Paas, F. (2009). How do I do? Investigating effects of expertise and performance-process records on self-assessment. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 23(9), 1256-1265. doi: 10.1002/acp.1528

Kuhl, J. (1987). Feeling versus being helpless: Metacognitive mediation of failure induced performance deficits. In F. W. y. R. H. Kluwe (Ed.), Metacognition, motivation and understanding (pp. 217-235). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Kuhl, J. (1994). Action versus state orientation: Psychometric properties of the Action Control Scale. In J. Kuhl & J. Beckmann (Eds.), Volition and personality: Action versus state orientation. Seattle: Hogrefe y Huber.

Kuhl, J. (2000). A functional-design approach to motivation and self-regulation. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation (pp. 111-169). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Newman, R. S. (2008). The motivational role of adaptive help seeking in self-regulated learning. In D. H. Schunk & B. J. Zimmerman (Eds.), Motivation and self-regulated learning: Theory, research, and applications (pp. 315-338). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Pajares, F. (1997). Current directions in self-efficacy research. In M. L. Maehr & P. R. Pintrich (Eds.), Advances in motivation and achievement (Vol. 10, pp. 1-49). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

Pajares, F. (2008). Motivational role of self-efficacy beliefs in self-regulated learning. In D. H. Schunk & B. J. Zimmerman (Eds.), Motivation and self-regulated learning. Theory, research and applications (pp. 111-168). New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Panadero, E. (2011). Instructional help for self-assessment and self-regulation: Evaluation of the efficacy of self-assessment scripts vs. rubrics. Ph.D., Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid.

Pardo, A., & Alonso-Tapia, J. (1992). Estrategias para el cambio motivacional. In J. Alonso-Tapia (Ed.), Motivar en la adolescencia (pp. 331-377). Madrid, Spain: Universidad Autónoma.

Paris, S. G., Byrnes, J. P., & Paris, A. H. (2001). Constructing theories, identities, and actions of self-regulated learners. In B. J. Zimmerman & D. H. Schunk (Eds.), Self-regulated learning and academic achievement (pp. 253-288). New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Paris, S. G., & Paris, A. H. (2001). Classroom applications of research on self-regulated learning. Educational Psychologist, 36(2), 89-101.

Pintrich, P. R. (2000). The role of goal orientation in self-regulated learning. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation (pp. 452-502). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Pintrich, P. R. (2004). A conceptual framework for assessing motivation and self-regulated learning in college students. Educational Psychology Review, 16(4), 385-407.

Pintrich, P. R., & de Groot, E. V. (1990). Motivational and self-regulated learning components of classroom academic performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(1), 33-40.

Puustinen, M., & Pulkkinen, L. (2001). Models of self-regulated learning: A review. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 45(3), 269-286. doi: 10.1080/00313830120074206

Samuelstuen, M. S., & Bråten, I. (2007). Examining the validity of self-reports on scales measuring students' strategic processing. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 77(2), 351-378. doi: 10.1348/000709906x106147

Schunk, D. H. (1982). Verbal self-regulation as a facilitator of childrens achievement and self-efficacy. Human Learning, 1(4), 265-277.

Schunk, D. H. (2008). Attributions as motivators of self-regulated learning. In D. H. Schunk & B. J. Zimmerman (Eds.), Motivation and self-regulated learning. Theory, research and applications (pp. 245-266). New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Weiner, B. (1986). An attributional theory of motivation and emotion. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Weiner, B. (2005). Motivation from an attributtion perspective and the social psychology of perceived competence. In A. J. Elliot & C. S. Dweck (Eds.), Handbook of competence and motivation (pp. 73-84). New York: Guilford.

Weinstein, C. E., & Mayer, R. E. (1986). The teaching of learning strategies. In M. C. Wittrock (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching (pp. 315-327). New York: Macmillan.

Wigfield, A., Hoa, L. W., & Lutz Klauda, S. (2008). The role of achievement values in the regulation of achievement behaviors. In D. H. Schunk & B. J. Zimmerman (Eds.), Motivation and self-regulated learning. Theory, research and applications (pp. 169-195). New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Winne, P. H. (2001). Self-regulated learning viewed from models of information processing. In B. J. Zimmerman & D. H. Schunk (Eds.), Self-regulated learning and academic achievement (pp. 153-190). New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Winne, P. H. (2011). A cognitive and metacognitive analysis of self-regulated learning. In B. J. Zimmerman & D. H. Schunk (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation of learning and performance (pp. 15-32). New York: Routledge.

Winne, P. H., & Hadwin, A. F. (1998). Studying as self-regulated engagement in learning. In D. Hacker, J. Dunlosky & A. Graesser (Eds.), Metacognition in educational theory and practice (pp. 277-304). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Wolters, C. A. (2003a). Regulation of motivation: Evaluating an underemphasized aspect of self-regulated learning. Educational Psychologist, 38(4), 189-205.

Wolters, C. A. (2003b). Understanding procrastination from a self-regulated learning perspective. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(1), 179-187. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.95.1.179

Zimmerman, B. J. (1989). A social cognitive view of self-regulated academic learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81(3), 329-339.

Zimmerman, B. J. (2001). Theories of self-regulated learning and academic achievement: An overview and analysis. In B. J. Zimmerman & D. H. Schunk (Eds.), Self-regulated learning and academic achievement (Second ed., pp. 1-37). New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Zimmerman, B. J. (2008). Goal setting: A key proactive source of academic self-regulation. In D. H. Schunk & B. J. Zimmerman (Eds.), Motivation and self-regulated learning. Theory, research and applications (pp. 267-295). New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Zimmerman, B. J. (2011). Motivational sources and outcomes of self-regulated learning and performance. In B. J. Zimmerman & D. H. Schunk (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation of learning and performance (pp. 49-64). New York: Routledge.

Zimmerman, B. J., Bonner, S., & Kovach, R. (1996). Goal 2: Developing time planning and management skills. Developing self-regulated learners: Beyond achievement to self-efficacy (pp. 25-46). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Zimmerman, B. J., & Campillo, M. (2003). Motivating self-regulated problem solvers. In J. E. Davidson & R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), The nature of problem solving (pp. 233-262). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Zimmerman, B. J., & Kitsantas, A. (2005). The hidden dimension of personal competence: Self-Regulated learning and practice. In A. J. Elliot & C. S. Dweck (Eds.), Handbook of competence and motivation (pp. 509-526). New York: Guilford Press.

Zimmerman, B. J., & Moylan, A. R. (2009). Self-regulation: Where metacognition and motivation intersect. In D. J. Hacker, J. Dunlosky & A. C. Graesser (Eds.), Handbook of Metacognition in Education (pp. 299-315). New York: Routledge.

Zimmerman, B. J., & Pons, M. M. (1986). Development of a structured interview for assessing student use of self-regulated learning-strategies. American Educational Research Journal, 23(4), 614-628.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6018/analesps.30.2.167221

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2014 Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Murcia

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Open AccessSello de Calidad FECyT 2013Thomson-Reuters-JCRScielo-Españadoajscimago