The orchestration of processes in relation to the product, and the role of psychological variables in written composition.

  • María-Lourdes Álvarez-Fernández Universidad de León
  • Jesús-Nicasio García-Sánchez Universidad de León
Keywords: Writing process, orchestration, written communication skills, textual product, psychological variables

Abstract

We studied the timing of writing processes using a direct retrospective online technique, and differences in the textual product from the earliest school years where such a study is feasible to the final years of compulsory education. We also analysed a range of psychological variables to determine their modulating effect on writing. Participants comprised a highly purified sample of 348 students aged between 9 and 16 years old who presented standard development and average levels of curricular and writing competence. Our results reveal complex patterns in the development of the writing process and its orchestration, compared with the textual product, and no direct relationship was observed between development of the writing process and its timing, and improvement in the textual product. Among the youngest students, all this was mediated by psychological variables related to the existence of inaccurate perceptions of self-efficacy as regards the deployment and use of writing processes and causal attributions to external factors. The implications, limitations and future perspectives are discussed.

Author Biographies

María-Lourdes Álvarez-Fernández, Universidad de León

Becaria FPI

Departamento de Psicología, Sociología y Filosofía

Jesús-Nicasio García-Sánchez, Universidad de León

Director del Departamento

Catedrático de Universidad

Departamento de Psicología, Sociología y Filosofía

References

Alamargot, D. y Chanquoy, L. (2001). Through the models of writing. Holland: Kluwer Academic Publishers Dordrecht.

Bandura, A. (2006). Guide for constructing self-efficacy scales. En F. Pajares and T. Urdan (Eds.), Self-Efficacy beliefs of adolescents (pp. 307-337). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.

Barbeiro, L. y Brandao, J. A. (2006). Enseñar a aprender a escribir en la escuela: Algunas líneas de investigación. En A. Camps (Coord.), Diálogo e investigaciones en las aulas. Barcelona: Graó.

Barbier, M. L. y Spinelli-Jullien, N. (2009). On-line tools for investigating writing strategies in L2. German as a Foreign Language Journal, 2-3, 23-40.

Barca-Lozano, A., Almeida, L. S., Porto-Rioboo, A. M., Peralbo-Uzquiano, M. y Brenlla-Blanco, J. C. (2012). Motivación escolar y rendimiento: Impacto de metas académicas, de estrategias de aprendizaje y autoeficacia. Anales de Psicología, 28(3), 848-859.doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.6018/analesps.28.3.156221.

Beauvais, C., Olive, T. y Passerault, J. M. (2011). Why are some texts good and others not? Relationship between text quality and online management of the writing processes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 103, 415-428. doi: 10.1037/a0022545.

Becker, A. (2006). A review of writing model research based on cognitive processes. En A. S. Horning y A. Becker (Eds.), Revision: History, theory, and practice (pp. 25-49). West Lafayette, Indiana: Parlor Press.

Bigg, J., Lai, P., Tang, C. y Lavelle, E. (1999). Teaching writing to ESL graduate students: A model and illustration. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 69, 293-306.

Bosque, I. y Demonte, V. (1999). Gramática descriptiva de la lengua española. Vol 3: Entre la oración y el discurso. Madrid: Espasa Calpe, S. A.

Braaksma, M. A. H., Rijlaarsdam, G., Van den Bergh, H. y van Hout-wolters, B. (2004). Observational learning and its effects on the orchestration of writing processes. Cognition and Instruction, 22(1), 1-36. doi: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3233849.

Breetvelt, I., Van den Bergh, H. y Rijlaarsdam, G. (1994). Relations between writing processes and text quality: when and how? Cognition and Instruction, 12(2), 103-123. doi: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3233677.

Cattell, R. y Cattell, A. (2001). Manual de factor “g”, escalas 2 y 3. Madrid: TEA Ediciones.

Cerezo, F. y Méndez, I. (2012). Conductas de riesgo social y de salud en adolescentes. Propuesta de intervención contextualizada para un caso de bullying. Anales de Psicología, 28(3), 705-719.doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.6018/analesps.28.3.156001.

Cromley, J. G. y Azevedo, R. (2006). Self-reports of reading comprehension strategies. What are we measuring? Metacognition and Learning, 1, 229-247. doi: 10.1007/s11409-006-9002-5.

De Caso, A. M., García, J. N., Díez, C., Robledo, P. y Álvarez, M. L. (2010). Mejorar las creencias de autoeficacia para la escritura de los alumnos con dificultades de aprendizaje para mejorar también sus procesos y productos de escritura. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 8, 195-206.

De Milliano, LL., Van Gelderen, A. y Sleegers, P. (2012). Patterns of cognitive self-regulation of adolescent struggling writers. Written Communication, 29(3), 303-325. doi:10.1177/0741088312450275.

De Vega, M., Díaz, J. M. y León, I. (1999). Procesamiento del discurso. En M. De Vega y F. Cuetos (Eds.), Psicolingüística del español (pp. 271-305). Madrid: trotta.

España. Ley Orgánica 2/2006, de 3 de mayo, de Educación. Boletín Oficial del Estado, 4 de mayo de 2006, núm. 106.

Fernández-Lozano, M. P., Puente-Ferreras, A. y Ferrando-Lucas, M.T. (2011). Lectura y escritura en niños con síndrome x frágil: estrategias de intervención. Anales de Psicología, 27(3), 808-815.

Ferretti, R. P., Lewis, W. E. y Andrews-Weckerly, S. (2009). Do goals affect the structure of students’ argumentative writing strategies? Journal of Educational Psychology, 101(3), 577-589. doi: 10.1037/a0014702.

Galbraith, D. y Torrance, M. (2004). Revision in the context of different drafting strategies. En L. Chanquoy, L. Allal, y P. Largy (Eds.), Revision in writing. Dordrecht, NL: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

García, J. N. y Fidalgo, R. (2008). Orchestration of writing processes and writing products: a comparison of sixth-grade students with and without learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal, 6(2), 77-98.

García, J. N. y Marbán, J. (2003). El proceso de composición escrita en alumnos con DA y/o BR: estudio instruccional con énfasis en la planificación. Infancia y Aprendizaje, 26(1), 97-113.

García, J. N., Marbán, J. y de Caso, A. (2001). Evaluación colectiva de los procesos de Planificación y Factores Psicológicos en la composición escrita (EPP y FPE). En J. N. García (Ed.), Dificultades de aprendizaje e intervención psicopedagógica (pp. 151-155). Barcelona: Ariel.

González, R. M. (2003). Una propuesta de intervención en los procesos cognitivos y estructuras textuales en niños con DAE. Psichotema, 15(3), 458-463.

Graham, S., Harris, K. R. y Fink, B. (2000). Is handwriting causally related to learning to write? Treatment of handwriting problems in beginning writers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92(4), 620-633.

Harris, K. y Graham, S. (2005). Writing better: effective strategies for teaching students with learning difficulties. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing.

Hayes, J. R. y Flower, L. S. (1980). Identifying the organization of writing processes. En L. W. Gregg and E. R. Steinberg (Eds.), Cognitive processes in writing: An interdisciplinary approach (pp. 3-30). Hillsdale, N. J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Holliway, D. R. y McCutchen, D. (2004). Audience perspective in young writers´ composing and revising. Reading as the reader. En L. Allal, L. Chanquoy, y P. Largy. (Eds.), Studies in writing: vol.13. Revision: Cognitive and instructional processes (pp.87-101). Norwell, M. A: Kluwer.

Hombrados-Mendieta, I. y Castro-Travé, M. (2013). Apoyo social, clima social y percepción de conflictos en un contexto educativo intercultural. Anales de Psicología, 29(1), 108-122. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.6018/analesps.29.1.123311

Kellogg, R. (1987). Writing performance: Effect of cognitive strategies. Written Communication, 4, 269-298.

Kieft, M., Rijlaarsdam, G., y Van den Bergh, H. (2008). An aptitude-treatment interaction approach to writing to-learn. Learning and Instruction, 18(4), 379-390.

Klassen, R. (2004). Optimism and realism: A review of self-efficacy from a cross-cultural perspective. International Journal of Psychology, 39(3), 205-230. doi: 10.1080/00207590344000330.

Latif, M. (2009). A state-of-the-art review of the real-time computer-aided study of the writing process. International Journal of English Studies, 8(1), 29-50.

Merino-Tejedor, E. (2013). Análisis de la validez de la escala de irritación en una muestra de profesores de educación primaria: Un estudio exploratorio. Anales de Psicología, 29(1), 123-130. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.6018/analesps.29.1.161891.

Negro, I. y Chanquoy, L. (2005). The effect of psycholinguistics research on the teaching of writing. Educational Studies in Languages and Literature, 5, 105-111.

Olive, T., Alves, R. A. y Castro, S. L. (2009). Cognitive processes in writing during pauses and execution periods. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 21, 758-785.

Olive, T., Favart, M., Beauvais, C. y Beauvais, L. (2009). Children`s cognitive effort and fluency in writing: effects and genre and of handwriting automatisation. Learning and Instruction, 19(4), 299-308. doi: http://dx.doi.org.proxy.library.vanderbilt.edu/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2008.05.005,

Olive, T., Kellogg, R. T. y Piolat, A. (2002). The triple task technique for studying the process of writing. En T. Olive y C. M. Levy (Eds.), Contemporary tools and techniques for studying writing (pp. 31-61). Dordrecht, A. A.: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Pajares, F. (2003). Self-efficacy beliefs, motivation, and achievement in writing: A review of the literature. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 19(2), 159-172. doi: 10.1080/10573560308222.

Rijlaarsdam, G. y Van den Bergh, H. (1996). The dynamics of composing an agenda for research into an interactive compensatory model of writing: many questions, some answers. En C. M. Levy y S. Ransdell (Eds.), The science of writing: Theories, methods, individual differences y applications (pp. 107-125). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Roussey, J. Y. y Piolat, A. (2005). Lé revision du text: une activité de contrôle et de réflexion. Psychologie FranÇaise, 50(3), 351-372. doi: 10.1016/j.psfr.2005.05.001.

Sanders, T. J., Janssen, D., Van der Pool, E., Schilperoord, J. y Van Wijk, C. (1996). Hierarchical text structure in writing products and writing processes. En G. Rijlaarsdam, H. Van den Bergh, y M. Couzijn (Eds.), Theories, models and methodology in writing research (pp. 473-492). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

Sanders, T. J. y Schilperoord, J. (2006). Text structure as a window on the cognition of writing. En C. MacArthur, S. Graham, y Fitzgerald, J. (Eds.), Handbook of writing research (pp. 357-402). New York: The Guilford Press.

Tillema, M. (2012). Writing in first and second language: empirical studies on text quality and writing processes (Doctoral thesis, Netherlands Graduate School of Linguistics, Utrecht University). Recuperado de http://igitur-archive.library.uu.nl/dissertations/2012-0525-200513/UUindex.html.

Tillema, M., Van den Bergh, H., Rijlaarsdam, G. y Sanders, T. (2011). Relating self-reports of writing behaviour and online task execution using a temporal model. Metacognition and Learning, 6(3), 229-253. doi: 10.1007/s11409-011-9072-x.

Torrance, M., Fidalgo, R. y García, J. (2007). The teachability and effectiveness of cognitive self-regulation in sixth-grade writers. Learning and Instruction, 17(3), 265-285. doi:10.1016/j.learninstruc.2007.02.003.

Torrance, M., Thomas, G. V. y Robinson, E. J. (1999). Individual differences in the writing behaviour of undergraduate students. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 69, 189-199.

Troia, G. A. y Graham, S. (2002). The effectiveness of a highly explicit, teacher-directed strategy instruction routine: Changing the writing performance of students with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 35(4), 290-305. doi: 10.1177/00222194020350040101.

Valle, A., Núñez, J. C., Rodríguez, S. y González-Pumariega, S. (2002). La motivación académica, En J. A. González-Pienda, R. González-Cabanach, J. C. Núñez y A. Valle (Coords.), Manual de psicología de la educación (pp. 117-144). Madrid: Pirámide.

Van der Pool, E. (1996). A text analytical study of conceptual writing processes and their development (pp. 456-472). En G. Rijlaarsdam, H. Van den Bergh, y M. Couzijn (Eds.), Theories, models and methodology in writing research. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

Van Weijen, D. (2008) Writing processes, text quality, and task effects. Empirical studies in first and second language writing. Utrecht: LOT.

Wong, B. (1998). Reflections on current attainments and future directions in writing intervention research in learning disabilities. En T. E. Scruggs y M. A. Martropieri (Eds.), Advances in learning and behavioral disabilities (pp. 127-149). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press Inc.

Published
25-12-2014
How to Cite
Álvarez-Fernández, M.-L., & García-Sánchez, J.-N. (2014). The orchestration of processes in relation to the product, and the role of psychological variables in written composition. Anales De Psicología / Annals of Psychology, 31(1), 96-108. https://doi.org/10.6018/analesps.31.1.169621
Section
Developmental and Educational Psychology