Effects of valence and causal direction in the emotion inferences processing during reading: Evidence from a lexical decision task
AbstractIn two experiments we investigated the role that activation of emotional inferences when readers represent fictional characters' emotional states using an affective lexical decision task. Subjects read short stories that described concrete actions. In the first experiment, we analyzed whether the valence (positive or negative) was an important factor of inference´s activation. The results showed that valence was determinant factor in the moment that emotional inference was generated, being the positive valence faster than negative. In the second experiment we studied whether the emotion inference activation was influenced by the causal direction of the story, where the causal direction of the text was manipulated in order to induce towards an emotional inference predictive (the reader looking for a consequence that promote a particular emotion) or inducing an explanatory inference (reader looking for a cause that “explain” a particular emotion). The results suggest that emotional inferences are made online, and that valence and causal directions are two decisive components of emotional trait, but only positive valence increase their processing.
Asthana, H.S. y Mandal, M.K. (2001). Visual-field bias in the judgment of facial expression of emotion. The Journal of General Psychology, 128, 21-29.
Barroso, J. y Nieto, A. (2001). Estudio de la asimetría cerebral con sujetos necrológicamente normales: procedimientos visuales. Revista de Neurología, 32 (4), 382-386.
Baumeister, R.F., Bratslavsky, E., Finkenauer, C. y Vohs, K.D. (2001). Bad is stronger than good. Review of General Psychology, 5 (4), 323-370.
de Vega, M., León, I. y Díaz, J.M. (1996). The representation of changing emotions in reading comprehension. Cognition and Emotion, 10 (3), 303-321.
Dolcos, F., LaBar, K.S. y Cabeza, R. (2004). Dissociable effects of arousal and valence on prefrontal activity indexing emotional evaluation and subsequent memory: an event-related fMRI study. NeuroImage, 23, 64-74.
Ehrlichman, H. (1987). Hemispheric asymmetry and positive-negative effect. In D. Ottoson (Ed.), Duality and Unity of the Brain. Hampshire, UK: Macmillam.
Escudero, I. y León, J.A. (2007). Procesos inferenciales en la comprensión del discurso escrito. Influencia de la estructura del texto en los procesos de comprensión. Revista Signos, 40, 311-336.
Frijda, N.H., Kuipers, P. y ter Schure, E. (1989). Relations among emotion, appraisal, and emotional action readiness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 212-228.
Gernsbacher, M.A., Goldsmith, H.H. y Roberston, R.R.W. (1992). Do readers mentally represent character´s emotional states? Cognition and Emotion, 6, 89-111.
Gernsbacher, M.A., Hallada, B.M. y Robertson, R.R.W. (1998). How automatically do readers infer fictional characters´ emotional states? Scientific Studies of Reading, 2, 271-300.
Gernsbacher, M.A. y Robertson, R.R.W. (1992). Knowledge activation versus sentence mapping when representation fictional characters´ emotional states. Language and Cognitive Processes, 7, 353-371.
Gygax, P., Garnham, A. y Oakhill, J. (2004). Inferring characters´ emotional states: can readers infer specific emotion? Language and Cognitive Processes, 19 (5), 613-639.
Gygax, P., Oakhill, J. y Garnham, A. (2003). The representation of characters´ emotional responses: Do readers infer specific emotion? Cognition and Emotion, 17 (3), 413-428.
Gygax, P., Tapiero, I. y Carruzzo, E. (2007). Emotional inferences during reading comprehension: What evidence can the self-pace reading paradigm provide? Discourse Processes, 44 (1), 33-50.
Isen, A.M. (1985). Asymmetry of happiness and sadness in effects on memory informal collage students: comment on Hasher, Rose, Zackes, Sanft, y Doren. Journal of Experimental Psychology General. 114 (3), 388-391.
Jansari, A., Tranel, D. y Adolphs, R. (2000). A valence-specific lateral bias for discriminating emotional facial expressions in free field. Cognition and Emotion, 14, 341-353.
Keil, A. y Ihssen, N. (2004). Identification facilitation for emotionally arousing verbs during the attentional blink. Emotion, 4, 23-35.
Keil, A., Ihssen, N. y Heim, S. (2006). Early cortical facilitation for emotionally arousing targets during the attentional blink. BMC Biology, 4, 23.
Komeda, H. y Kusumi, T. (2006). The effect of a protagonist’s emotional shift on situation model construction. Memory and Cognition, 34 (7), 1548-1556.
Krull, D.S. y Dill, J.C. (1998). Do smile elicit more inferences than do frowns? The effect of emotional valence on the production of spontaneous inferences. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24, 289-300.
Kuchinke, L., Jacobos, A.M., Grubich, C., L-H. Vo, M., Conrad, M. y Hermann, M. (2005). Incidental effects of emotional valence in single word processing: An fMRI study, NeuroImage, 28, 1022-1032.
León, J.A. y Pérez, O. (2001). The influence of prior knowledge on the time course clinical diagnosis inferences: A comparison of expert and novices. Discourse Processes, 31, 187-213.
Liu, J.H., Karasawa, K. y Weiner, B. (1992). Inferences about the causes of positive and negative emotions. Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc., 18 (5), 603-615.
Molinari, C., Burin, D., Saux, G., Barreyro, J.P., Irrazabal, N., Bechis, M.S., Duarte, A. y Remenzon, V. (2009). Fictional characters´ emotional sate representation: What is its degree f specificity? Psicothema, 21 (1), 9-14.
Nakamura, K., Kawashima, R., Ito, K., Sugiera, M., Kato, T., Nakamura, A., Hatano, K., Nagumo, S., Kubota, K., Fukuda, H. y Kojima, S. (1999). Activation of right inferior frontal cortex during assessment of facial emotion. The American Physiological Society, 1610-1614.
Nakic, M, Smith, B.W., Busis, S., Vythilingam, M. y Blair, R.J. (2006). The impact of affect and frequency on lexical decision: The role of the amygdala and inferior frontal cortex. NeuroImage, 31, 1752-1761.
Oatley, K. y Johnson-Laird, P. (1987). Toward a cognitive theory of emotion. Cognition and Emotion, 1, 29-50.
Ohira, H., Winton, W.M. y Oyama, M. (1997). Effects of stimulus valence on recognition memory and endogenous eyeblinks: Further evidence for positive-negative asymmetry. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24, 986-993.
Pratto, F. y John, O.P. (1991). Automatic vigilance: The attention-grabbing power of negative social information. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 380-391.
Robinson-Riegler, G.L. y Winton, W.M. (1996). The role of conscious recollection in recognition of affective material: Evidence for positive-negative asymmetry. Journal of General Psychology, 123, 93-104.
Rodway, P., Wright, L. y Hardie, S. (2003). The valence-specific laterality effect in free viewing conditions: the influence of sex, handedness, and response bias. Brain Cognition, 53, 452-463.
Sato, W. y Auki, S. (2006). Right hemispheric dominance in processing of unconscious negative emotion. ScienceDirect, 62, 261-266.
Siegle, G.J., Ingram, R.E. y Matt, G.E. (2002). Affective interference: explanation for negative information processing biases in dysphoria? Corgn. Ther. Res. 26, 73-88.
Silverman, E.K. y Weingartner, H. (1986). Hemispheric lateralization of functional related to emotion. Brain and Cognition, 5, 322-353.
Taylor, S.E. (1991). Asymmetrical effect of positive and negative events: The mobilization-minimization hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin, 110, 67-85.
Trabasso, T. y Magliano, J.P. (1996). Conscious understanding during text comprehension. Discourse Processes, 21, 255-287.
Copyright (c) 2015 Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Murcia
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
The works published in this journal are subject to the following terms:
1. The Publications Service of the University of Murcia (the publisher) retains the property rights (copyright) of published works, and encourages and enables the reuse of the same under the license specified in paragraph 2.
2. The works are published in the online edition of the journal under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 (legal text). You can copy, use, distribute, transmit and publicly display, provided that: i) you cite the author and the original source of publication (journal, editorial and URL of the work), ii) are not used for commercial purposes, iii ) mentions the existence and specifications of this license.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
3. Conditions of self-archiving. Is allowed and encouraged the authors to disseminate electronically pre-print versions (version before being evaluated and sent to the journal) and / or post-print (version reviewed and accepted for publication) of their works before publication, as it encourages its earliest circulation and diffusion and thus a possible increase in its citation and scope between the academic community. RoMEO Color: Green.